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US20130251796 A1
US 13/901,027
26 . 2013
23 . 2013
25 . 2006
CA2661573A1, CA2661573C, CA2707204A1, CA2707204C, CN101583360A, CN101583360B, CN102657630A, CN102657630B, CN102688213A, CN102688241A, CN102688241B, CN102743355A, CN102743355B, CN103861111A, CN105213345A, CN105267170A, DE202007011825U1, DE602007002596D1, DE602007010963D1, DE602007010974D1, DE602007012747D1, EP1897545A1, EP1897545B1, EP2070538A1, EP2070538B1, EP2080514A1, EP2080514B1, EP2082742A1, EP2082742B1, EP2292229A1, EP2292229B1, EP2292230A1, EP2292230B1, EP2311459A1, EP2311459B1, EP2343071A1, EP2343071B1, EP2384754A1, EP2384754B1, EP2399579A1, EP2399579B1, EP2399579B9, EP2399580A1, EP2399580B1, US8808741, US8815289, US8821929, US8834925, US8846086, US8894987, US8894988, US8911719, US9084816, US9095614, US9095615, US9101661, US9486412, US9486413, US9492389, US9492390, US9492391, US9492392, US9492393, US9545380, US9763886, US9763933, US9770416, US9770417, US9775808, US9775809, US9775810, US9775811, US9775812, US20090081290, US20130251797, US20130251798, US20130251799, US20130251800, US20130251801, US20130251802, US20130259938, US20130259939, US20130259940, US20130260015, US20140024669, US20140030327, US20140031381, US20150028512, US20150037411, US20150037412, US20150037413, US20150265599, US20150265600, US20150265601, US20150335580, US20150335582, US20150335583, US20150335584, US20150335585, US20170065527, US20170128369, US20170128370, US20170128371, US20170128372, US20170128373, US20170128374, US20170128375, US20170128440, US20170246116, WO2008023261A1
13901027, 901027, US 2013/0251796 A1, US 2013/251796 A1, US 20130251796 A1, US 20130251796A1, US 2013251796 A1, US 2013251796A1, US-A1-20130251796, US-A1-2013251796, US2013/0251796A1, US2013/251796A1, US20130251796 A1, US20130251796A1, US2013251796 A1, US2013251796A1
William H. McKenna, Richard O. Mannion, Edward P. O'Donnell, Haiyong H. Huang
Purdue Pharma L.P.
BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
USPTO ( ), USPTO , Espacenet
Tamper resistant dosage forms
US 20130251796 A1
The present invention relates to pharmaceutical dosage forms, for example to a tamper resistant dosage form including an opioid analgesic, and processes of manufacture, uses, and methods of treatment thereof.
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1-169. (canceled)
170. A solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation, the extended release matrix formulation comprising a composition comprising at least:
(1) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000; and
(2) at least one active agent selected from opioid analgesics wherein the opioid analgesic is oxycodone hydrochloride and the dosage form comprises from 5 mg to 500 mg of oxycodone hydrochloride; and
wherein the composition comprises at least about 80% (by wt) polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000.
171. The solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form of claim 170, wherein the opioid analgesic is oxycodone hydrochloride and the composition comprises more than 5% (by wt) of the oxycodone hydrochloride.
172. The solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form of claim 170, wherein the composition comprises 10 mg oxycodone hydrochloride, and at least about 85% (by wt) polyethylene oxide.
173. The solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form of claim 170, wherein the composition comprises 15 mg or 20 mg oxycodone hydrochloride.
174. The solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form of claim 170, wherein the density of the extended release matrix formulation is equal to or less than about 1.20 g/cm3 or equal to or less than about 1.19 g/cm3.
175. The solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form of claim 170, wherein the extended release matrix formulation after having been stored at 25 C. and 60% relative humidity (RH) for at least 1 month provides a dissolution rate, when measured in a USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C., characterized by the percent amount of active agent released at 1, 4 and 12 hours of dissolution that deviates no more than about 15% points from the corresponding in-vitro dissolution rate of a reference formulation prior to storage.
176. The solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form of claim 175, wherein the extended release matrix formulation has been stored at 40 C. and 75% relative humidity (RH).
177. The solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form of claim 170, wherein the extended release matrix formulation after having been stored at 25 C. and 60% relative humidity (RH) for at least 1 month contains an amount of the at least one active agent in % (by wt) relative to the label claim of the active agent for the extended release matrix formulation that deviates no more than about 10% points from the corresponding amount of active agent in % (by wt) relative to the label claim of the active agent for the extended release matrix formulation of a reference formulation prior to storage.
178. The solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form of claim 177, wherein the extended release matrix formulation has been stored at 40 C. and 75% relative humidity (RH).
179. The solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form of claim 170, wherein the dosage form provides a dissolution rate, which when measured in a USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C., is between 12.5 and 55% (by wt) active released after 1 hour, between 25 and 65% (by wt) active released after 2 hours, between 45 and 85% (by wt) active released after 4 hours, and between 55 and 95% (by wt) active released after 6 hours.
180. The solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form of claim 170, wherein the active agent is oxycodone hydrochloride and wherein the dosage form when tested in a comparative clinical study is bioequivalent to the commercial product OxyContin.
181. The solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form of claim 170, wherein the active agent is oxycodone hydrochloride and wherein a dosage form comprising 10 mg of oxycodone hydrochloride when tested in a comparative clinical study is bioequivalent to a reference tablet containing 10 mg of oxycodone hydrochloride in a matrix formulation containing:
a) Oxycodone hydrochloride: 10.0 mg/tablet;
b) Lactose (spray-dried): 69.25 mg/tablet;
c) Povidone: 5.0 mg/tablet;
d) Eudragit RS 30D (solids): 10.0 mg/tablet;
e) Triacetin: 2.0 mg/tablet;
f) Stearyl alcohol: 25.0 mg/tablet;
g) Talc: 2.5 mg/tablet; and
h) Magnesium Stearate: 1.25 mg/tablet;
and wherein the reference tablet is prepared by the following steps:
1. Eudragit RS 30D and Triacetin are combined while passing through a 60 mesh screen, and mixed under low shear for approximately 5 minutes or until a uniform dispersion is observed;
2. Oxycodone HCl, lactose, and povidone are placed into a fluid bed granulator/dryer (FBD) bowl, and the suspension sprayed onto the powder in the fluid bed;
3. after spraying, the granulation is passed through a #12 screen if necessary to reduce lumps;
4. the dry granulation is placed in a mixer;
5. in the meantime, the required amount of stearyl alcohol is melted at a temperature of approximately 70 C.;
6. the melted stearyl alcohol is incorporated into the granulation while mixing;
7. the waxed granulation is transferred to a fluid bed granulator/dryer or trays and allowed to cool to room temperature or below;
8. the cooled granulation is then passed through a #12 screen;
9. the waxed granulation is placed in a mixer/blender and lubricated with the required amounts of talc and magnesium stearate for approximately 3 minutes; and
10. the granulate is compressed into 125 mg tablets on a suitable tableting machine.
182. The extended release dosage form of claim 170, wherein the dosage form comprises 5 mg, 7.5 mg, 10 mg, 15 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg, 40 mg, 45 mg, 60 mg, 80 mg, 90 mg, 120 mg, or 160 mg of oxycodone hydrochloride.
183. The extended release dosage form of claim 170, wherein the opioid analgesic is oxycodone hydrochloride having a 14-hydroxycodeinone level of less than about 25 ppm, of less than about 15 ppm, less than about 10 ppm, or less than about 5 ppm.
184. The extended release dosage form of claim 181, wherein the opioid analgesic is oxycodone hydrochloride having a 14-hydroxycodeinone level of less than about 25 ppm, of less than about 15 ppm, less than about 10 ppm, or less than about 5 ppm.
185. The extended release dosage form of claim 170, which is in the form of a tablet formed by direct compression of the composition and cured by at least subjecting said tablet to a temperature of at least about 60 C. or at least about 62 C. for a time period of at least about 1 minute, at least about 5 minutes, or at least about 15 minutes.
186. The extended release dosage form of claim 181, which is in the form of a tablet formed by direct compression of the composition and cured by at least subjecting said tablet to a temperature of at least about 60 C. or at least about 62 C. for a time period of at least about 1 minute, at least about 5 minutes, or at least about 15 minutes.
187. The extended release dosage form of claim 170, which is in the form of a tablet and which is over coated with a polyethylene oxide powder layer to form a tablet that has a core tablet and a layer of polyethylene oxide surrounding the core tablet.
188. The extended release dosage form of claim 170, which is in the form of a stacked bi or multi layered tablet, wherein one of the layers contains an extended release formulation and one of the other layers contains an immediate release formulation.
189. The extended release dosage form of claim 188, wherein the extended release formulation and the immediate release formulation contain the same or different active agents.
190. The extended release dosage form of claim 188, wherein the extended release formulation comprises an opioid analgesic and the immediate release formulation comprises a non opioid analgesic.
191. A method of treatment wherein a dosage form according to claim 170 is administered for the treatment of pain to a patient in need thereof, wherein the dosage form comprises oxycodone hydrochloride.
192. A pharmaceutical tablet in accordance with claim 170 having a cracking force of at least 110 N, at least 120 N, at least 130 N, or at least 140 N, when subjected to an indentation test.
193. A pharmaceutical tablet in accordance with claim 181 having a cracking force of at least 110 N, at least 120 N, at least 130 N, or at least 140 N, when subjected to an indentation test.
194. A pharmaceutical tablet in accordance with claim 170 having a penetration depth to crack distance of at least 1.0 mm, at least 1.2 mm, at least 1.4 mm, or at least 1.6 mm, when subjected to an indentation test.
195. A pharmaceutical tablet in accordance with claim 181 having a penetration depth to crack distance of at least 1.0 mm, at least 1.2 mm, at least 1.4 mm, or at least 1.6 mm, when subjected to an indentation test.
196. A pharmaceutical tablet in accordance with claim 170 capable of resisting a work of at least 0.06 J without cracking.
197. A pharmaceutical tablet in accordance with claim 181 capable of resisting a work of at least 0.06 J without cracking.
198. A pharmaceutical tablet in accordance with claim 170 having (a) a cracking force of at least 110 N, at least 120 N, at least 130 N, or at least 140 N, when subjected to an indentation test; (b) a penetration depth to crack distance of at least 1.0 mm, at least 1.2 mm, at least 1.4 mm, or at least 1.6 mm, when subjected to an indentation test; and (c) capable of resisting a work of at least 0.06 J without cracking.
199. The pharmaceutical tablet in accordance with claim 192 having a density of less than 1.20 g/cm3 or less than 1.19 g/cm3.
  • [0001]
    This application claims priority from U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/840,244, filed Aug. 25, 2006, the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference.
  • TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    The present invention relates to pharmaceutical dosage forms, for example to a tamper resistant dosage form including an opioid analgesic, and processes of manufacture, uses, and methods of treatment thereof.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0003]
    Pharmaceutical products are sometimes the subject of abuse. For example, a particular dose of opioid agonist may be more potent when administered parenterally as compared to the same dose administered orally. Some formulations can be tampered with to provide the opioid agonist contained therein for illicit use. Controlled release opioid agonist formulations are sometimes crushed, or subject to extraction with solvents (e.g., ethanol) by drug abusers to provide the opioid contained therein for immediate release upon oral or parenteral administration.
  • [0004]
    Controlled release opioid agonist dosage forms which can liberate a portion of the opioid upon exposure to ethanol, can also result in a patient receiving the dose more rapidly than intended if a patient disregards instructions for use and concomitantly uses alcohol with the dosage form.
  • [0005]
    There continues to exist a need in the art for pharmaceutical oral dosage forms comprising an opioid agonist without significantly changed opioid release properties when in contact with alcohol and/or with resistance to crushing.
  • OBJECTS AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0006]
    It is an object of certain embodiments of the present invention to provide an oral extended release dosage form comprising an active agent such as an opioid analgesic which is tamper resistant.
  • [0007]
    It is an object of certain embodiments of the present invention to provide an oral extended release dosage form comprising an active agent such as an opioid analgesic which is resistant to crushing.
  • [0008]
    It is an object of certain embodiments of the present invention to provide an oral extended release dosage form comprising an active agent such as an opioid analgesic which is resistant to alcohol extraction and dose dumping when concomitantly used with or in contact with alcohol.
  • [0009]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation in the form of a tablet or multi particulates, wherein the tablet or the individual multi particulates can be at least flattened without breaking, characterized by a thickness of the tablet or of the individual multi particulate after the flattening which corresponds to no more than about 60% of the thickness of the tablet or the individual multi particulate before flattening, and wherein said flattened tablet or the flattened multi particulates provide an in-vitro dissolution rate, when measured in a USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C., characterized by the percent amount of active released at 0.5 hours of dissolution that deviates no more than about 20% points from the corresponding in-vitro dissolution rate of a non-flattened reference tablet or reference multi particulates.
  • [0010]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation in the form of a tablet or multi particulates, wherein the tablet or the individual multi particulates can at least be flattened without breaking, characterized by a thickness of the tablet or the individual multi particulate after the flattening which corresponds to no more than about 60% of the thickness of the tablet or the individual multi particulate before flattening, and wherein the flattened or non flattened tablet or the flattened or non flattened multi particulates provide an in-vitro dissolution rate, when measured in a USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) comprising 40% ethanol at 37 C., characterized by the percent amount of active released at 0.5 hours of dissolution that deviates no more than about 20% points from the corresponding in-vitro dissolution rate measured in a USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C. without ethanol, using a flattened and non flattened reference tablet or flattened and non flattened reference multi particulates, respectively.
  • [0011]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation, the extended release matrix formulation comprising a composition comprising at least:
      • (1) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000; and
      • (2) at least one active agent; and
  • [0014]
    wherein the composition comprises at least about 80% (by wt) polyethylene oxide.
  • [0015]
    According to certain such embodiments the active agent is oxycodone hydrochloride and the composition comprises more than about 5% (by wt) of the oxycodone hydrochloride.
  • [0016]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation, the extended release matrix formulation comprising a composition comprising at least:
      • (1) at least one active agent;
      • (2) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000; and
      • (3) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, a molecular weight of less than 1,000,000.
  • [0020]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a process of preparing a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form,
  • [0000]
    comprising at least the steps of:
      • (a) combining at least
        • (1) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000, and
        • (2) at least one active agent, to form a composition;
      • (b) shaping the composition to form an extended release matrix formulation; and
      • (c) curing said extended release matrix formulation comprising at least a curing step of subjecting the extended release matrix formulation to a temperature which is at least the softening temperature of said polyethylene oxide for a time period of at least about 1 minute.
  • [0026]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a process of preparing a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form, comprising at least the steps of:
      • (a) combining at least
        • (1) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000, and
        • (2) at least one active agent, to form a composition;
      • (b) shaping the composition to form an extended release matrix formulation; and
      • (c) curing said extended release matrix formulation comprising at least a curing step wherein said polyethylene oxide at least partially melts.
  • [0032]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation comprising an active agent in the form of a tablet or multi particulates,
  • [0033]
    wherein the tablet or the individual multi particulates can at least be flattened without breaking, characterized by a thickness of the tablet or of the individual multi particulate after the flattening which corresponds to no more than about 60% of the thickness of the tablet or the individual multi particulate before flattening, and wherein said flattened tablet or the flattened multi particulates provide an in-vitro dissolution rate, when measured in a USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C., characterized by the percent amount of active agent released at 0.5 hours of dissolution that deviates no more than about 20% points from the corresponding in-vitro dissolution rate of a non-flattened reference tablet or reference multi particulates.
  • [0034]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation comprising an active agent in the form of a tablet or multi particulates,
  • [0035]
    wherein the tablet or the individual multi particulates can at least be flattened without breaking, characterized by a thickness of the tablet or of the individual multi particulate after the flattening which corresponds to no more than about 60% of the thickness of the tablet or the individual multi particulate before flattening, and wherein said flattened tablet or the flattened multi particulates and the non-flattened reference tablet or reference multi particulates provide an in-vitro dissolution rate, which when measured in a USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C., is between about 5 and about 40% (by wt) active agent released after 0.5 hours.
  • [0036]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation comprising an active agent in the form of a tablet or multi particulates,
  • [0037]
    wherein the tablet or the individual multi particulates can at least be flattened without breaking, characterized by a thickness of the tablet or the individual multi particulate after the flattening which corresponds to no more than about 60% of the thickness of the tablet or the individual multi particulate before flattening, and wherein the flattened or non flattened tablet or the flattened or non flattened multi particulates provide an in-vitro dissolution rate, when measured in a USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) comprising 40% ethanol at 37 C., characterized by the percent amount of active agent released at 0.5 hours of dissolution that deviates no more than about 20% points from the corresponding in-vitro dissolution rate measured in a USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C. without ethanol, using a flattened and non flattened reference tablet or flattened and non flattened reference multi particulates, respectively.
  • [0038]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation comprising an active agent in the form of a tablet or multi particulates,
  • [0039]
    wherein the tablet or the individual multi particulates can at least be flattened without breaking, characterized by a thickness of the tablet or the individual multi particulate after the flattening which corresponds to no more than about 60% of the thickness of the tablet or the individual multi particulate before flattening, and wherein the flattened or non flattened tablet or the flattened or non flattened multi particulates provide an in-vitro dissolution rate, which when measured in a USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) comprising 40% or 0% ethanol at 37 C., is between about 5 and about 40% (by wt) active agent released after 0.5 hours.
  • [0040]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation, the extended release matrix formulation comprising
  • [0000]
    a composition comprising at least:
      • (1) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000; and
      • (2) at least one active agent selected from opioid analgesics; and
  • [0043]
    wherein the composition comprises at least about 80% (by wt) polyethylene oxide.
  • [0044]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation, the extended release matrix formulation comprising a composition comprising at least:
      • (1) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000; and
      • (2) 10 mg oxycodone hydrochloride; and
  • [0047]
    wherein the composition comprises at least about 85% (by wt) polyethylene oxide.
  • [0048]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation, the extended release matrix formulation comprising
  • [0000]
    a composition comprising at least:
      • (1) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000; and
      • (2) 15 mg or 20 mg oxycodone hydrochloride; and
  • [0051]
    wherein the composition comprises at least about 80% (by wt) polyethylene oxide.
  • [0052]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation, the extended release matrix formulation comprising
  • [0000]
    a composition comprising at least:
      • (1) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000; and
      • (2) 40 mg oxycodone hydrochloride; and
  • [0055]
    wherein the composition comprises at least about 65% (by wt) polyethylene oxide.
  • [0056]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation, the extended release matrix formulation comprising
  • [0000]
    a composition comprising at least:
      • (1) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000; and
      • (2) 60 mg or 80 mg oxycodone hydrochloride; and
  • [0059]
    wherein the composition comprises at least about 60% (by wt) polyethylene oxide.
  • [0060]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation, the extended release matrix formulation comprising
  • [0000]
    a composition comprising at least:
      • (1) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000; and
      • (2) 8 mg hydromorphone hydrochloride; and
  • [0063]
    wherein the composition comprises at least about 94% (by wt) polyethylene oxide.
  • [0064]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation, the extended release matrix formulation comprising
  • [0000]
    a composition comprising at least:
      • (1) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000; and
      • (2) 12 mg hydromorphone hydrochloride; and
  • [0067]
    wherein the composition comprises at least about 92% (by wt) polyethylene oxide.
  • [0068]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation, the extended release matrix formulation comprising
  • [0000]
    a composition comprising at least:
      • (1) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000; and
      • (2) 32 mg hydromorphone hydrochloride; and
  • [0071]
    wherein the composition comprises at least about 90% (by wt) polyethylene oxide.
  • [0072]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation, the extended release matrix formulation comprising a composition comprising at least:
      • (1) at least one active agent selected from opioid analgesics;
      • (2) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000; and
      • (3) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of less than 1,000,000.
  • [0076]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation, the extended release matrix formulation comprising
  • [0000]
    a composition comprising at least:
      • (1) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, a molecular weight of at least 800,000; and
      • (2) at least one active agent selected from opioid analgesics; and
  • [0079]
    wherein the composition comprises at least about 80% (by wt) polyethylene oxide.
  • [0080]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation, the extended release matrix formulation comprising
  • [0000]
    a composition comprising at least:
      • (1) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000; and
      • (2) at least one active agent; and
  • [0083]
    wherein the extended release matrix formulation when subjected to an indentation test has a cracking force of at least about 110 N.
  • [0084]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation, the extended release matrix formulation comprising
  • [0000]
    a composition comprising at least:
      • (1) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000; and
      • (2) at least one active agent; and
  • [0087]
    wherein the extended release matrix formulation when subjected to an indentation test has a penetration depth to crack distance of at least about 1.0 mm.
  • [0088]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a method of treatment wherein a dosage form according to the invention comprising an opioid analgesic is administered for treatment of pain to a patient in need thereof.
  • [0089]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to the use of a dosage form according to the invention comprising an opioid analgesic for the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of pain.
  • [0090]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to the use of high molecular weight polyethylene oxide that has, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000, as matrix forming material in the manufacture of a solid extended release oral dosage form comprising an active selected from opioids for imparting to the solid extended release oral dosage form resistance to alcohol extraction.
  • [0091]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a process of preparing a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form, comprising at least the steps of:
      • (a) combining at least
        • (1) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, a molecular weight of at least 1,000,000, and
        • (2) at least one active agent, to form a composition;
      • (b) shaping the composition to form an extended release matrix formulation; and
      • (c) curing said extended release matrix formulation comprising at least a curing step of subjecting the extended release matrix formulation to a temperature which is at least the softening temperature of said polyethylene oxide for a time period of at least 5 minutes.
  • [0097]
    According to certain embodiments of the invention the solid extended release pharmaceutical dosage form is for use as a suppository.
  • [0098]
    The term extended release is defined for purposes of the present invention as to refer to products which are formulated to make the drug available over an extended period after ingestion thereby allowing a reduction in dosing frequency compared to a drug presented as a conventional dosage form (e.g. as a solution or an immediate release dosage form).
  • [0099]
    The term immediate release is defined for the purposes of the present invention as to refer to products which are formulated to allow the drug to dissolve in the gastrointestinal contents with no intention of delaying or prolonging the dissolution or absorption of the drug.
  • [0100]
    The term solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form refers to the administration form comprising a unit dose of active agent in extended release form such as an extended release matrix formulation and optionally other adjuvants and additives conventional in the art, such as a protective coating or a capsule and the like, and optionally any other additional features or components that are used in the dosage form. Unless specifically indicated the term solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form refers to said dosage form in intact form i.e. prior to any tampering. The extended release pharmaceutical dosage form can e.g. be a tablet comprising the extended release matrix formulation or a capsule comprising the extended release matrix formulation in the form of multi particulates. The extended release pharmaceutical dosage form may comprise a portion of active agent in extended release form and another portion of active agent in immediate release form, e.g. as an immediate release layer of active agent surrounding the dosage form or an immediate release component included within the dosage form.
  • [0101]
    The term extended release matrix formulation is defined for purposes of the present invention as shaped solid form of a composition comprising at least one active agent and at least one extended release feature such as an extended release matrix material such as e.g. high molecular weight polyethylene oxide. The composition can optionally comprise more than these two compounds namely further active agents and additional retardants and/or other materials, including but not limited to low molecular weight polyethylene oxides and other adjuvants and additives conventional in the art.
  • [0102]
    The term bioequivalent/bioequivalence is defined for the purposes of the present invention to refer to a dosage form that provides geometric mean values of Cmax, AUCt, and AUCinf for an active agent, wherein the 90% confidence intervals estimated for the ratio (test/reference) fall within the range of 80.00% to 125.00%. Preferably, the mean values Cmax, AUCt, and AUCinf fall within the range of 80.00% to 125.00% as determined in both the fed and the fasting states.
  • [0103]
    The term polyethylene oxide is defined for purposes of the present invention as having a molecular weight of at least 25,000, measured as is conventional in the art, and preferably having a molecular weight of at least 100,000. Compositions with lower molecular weight are usually referred to as polyethylene glycols.
  • [0104]
    The term high molecular weight polyethylene oxide is defined for proposes of the present invention as having an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000. For the purpose of this invention the approximate molecular weight is based on rheological measurements. Polyethylene oxide is considered to have an approximate molecular weight of 1,000,000 when a 2% (by wt) aqueous solution of said polyethylene oxide using a Brookfield viscometer Model RVF, spindle No. 1, at 10 rpm, at 25 C. shows a viscosity range of 400 to 800 mPa s (cP). Polyethylene oxide is considered to have an approximate molecular weight of 2,000,000 when a 2% (by wt) aqueous solution of said polyethylene oxide using a Brookfield viscometer Model RVF, spindle No. 3, at 10 rpm, at 25 C. shows a viscosity range of 2000 to 4000 mPa s (cP). Polyethylene oxide is considered to have an approximate molecular weight of 4,000,000 when a 1% (by wt) aqueous solution of said polyethylene oxide using a Brookfield viscometer Model RVF, spindle No. 2, at 2 rpm, at 25 C. shows a viscosity range of 1650 to 5500 mPa s (cP). Polyethylene oxide is considered to have an approximate molecular weight of 5,000,000 when a 1% (by wt) aqueous solution of said polyethylene oxide using a Brookfield viscometer Model RVF, spindle No. 2, at 2 rpm, at 25 C. shows a viscosity range of 5500 to 7500 mPa s (cP). Polyethylene oxide is considered to have an approximate molecular weight of 7,000,000 when a 1% (by wt) aqueous solution of said polyethylene oxide using a Brookfield viscometer Model RVF, spindle No. 2, at 2 rpm, at 25 C. shows a viscosity range of 7500 to 10,000 mPa s (cP). Polyethylene oxide is considered to have an approximate molecular weight of 8,000,000 when a 1% (by wt) aqueous solution of said polyethylene oxide using a Brookfield viscometer Model RVF, spindle No. 2, at 2 rpm, at 25 C. shows a viscosity range of 10,000 to 15,000 mPa s (cP). Regarding the lower molecular weight polyethylene oxides; Polyethylene oxide is considered to have an approximate molecular weight of 100,000 when a 5% (by wt) aqueous solution of said polyethylene oxide using a Brookfield viscometer Model RVT, spindle No. 1, at 50 rpm, at 25 C. shows a viscosity range of 30 to 50 mPa s (cP) and polyethylene oxide is considered to have an approximate molecular weight of 900,000 when a 5% (by wt) aqueous solution of said polyethylene oxide using a Brookfield viscometer Model RVF, spindle No. 2, at 2 rpm, at 25 C. shows a viscosity range of 8800 to 17,600 mPa s (cP).
  • [0105]
    The term low molecular weight polyethylene oxide is defined for purposes of the present invention as having, based on the rheological measurements outlined above, an approximate molecular weight of less than 1,000,000.
  • [0106]
    The term direct compression is defined for purposes of the present invention as referring to a tableting process wherein the tablet or any other compressed dosage form is made by a process comprising the steps of dry blending the compounds and compressing the dry blend to form the dosage form, e.g. by using a diffusion blend and/or convection mixing process (e.g. Guidance for Industry, SUPAC-IR/MR: Immediate Release and Modified Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms, Manufacturing Equipment Addendum).
  • [0107]
    The term bed of free flowing tablets is defined for the purposes of the present invention as referring to a batch of tablets that are kept in motion with respect to each other as e.g. in a coating pan set at a suitable rotation speed or in a fluidized bed of tablets. The bed of free flowing tablets preferably reduces or prevents the sticking of tablets to one another.
  • [0108]
    The term flattening and related terms as used in the context of flattening tablets or other dosage forms in accordance with the present invention means that a tablet is subjected to force applied from a direction substantially perpendicular to the diameter and substantially inline with the thickness of e.g. a tablet. The force may be applied with a carver style bench press (unless expressly mentioned otherwise) to the extent necessary to achieve the target flatness/reduced thickness. According to certain embodiments of the invention the flattening does not result in breaking the tablet in pieces, however, edge spits and cracks may occur. The flatness is described in terms of the thickness of the flattened tablet compared to the thickness of the non-flattened tablet expressed in % thickness, based on the thickness of the non flattened tablet. Apart from tablets, the flattening can be applied to any shape of a dosage form, wherein the force is applied from a direction substantially in line with the smallest diameter (i.e. the thickness) of the shape when the shape is other than spherical and from any direction when the shape is spherical. The flatness is then described in terms of the thickness/smallest diameter of the flattened shape compared to the thickness/smallest diameter of the non-flattened shape expressed in % thickness, based on the thickness/smallest diameter of the non flattened shape, when the initial shape is non spherical, or the % thickness, based on the non flattened diameter when the initial shape is spherical. The thickness is measured using a thickness gauge (e.g., digital thickness gauge or digital caliper) In FIGS. 4 to 6 tablets are shown that where flattened using a carver bench press. The initial shape of the tablets is shown in FIGS. 1 to 3 on the left hand side of the photograph.
  • [0109]
    In certain embodiments of the invention, apart from using a bench press a hammer can be used for flattening tablets/dosage forms. In such a flattening process hammer strikes are manually applied from a direction substantially inline with the thickness of e.g. the tablet. The flatness is then also described in terms of the thickness/smallest diameter of the flattened shape compared to the non-flattened shape expressed in % thickness, based on the thickness/smallest diameter of the non-flattened shape when the initial shape is non spherical, or the % thickness, based on the non flattened diameter when the initial shape is spherical. The thickness is measured using a thickness gauge (e.g., digital thickness gauge or digital caliper).
  • [0110]
    By contrast, when conducting the breaking strength or tablet hardness test as described in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 18th edition, 1990, Chapter 89 Oral Solid Dosage Forms, pages 1633-1665, which is incorporated herein by reference, using the Schleuniger Apparatus the tablet/dosage form is put between a pair of flat plates arranged in parallel, and pressed by means of the flat plates, such that the force is applied substantially perpendicular to the thickness and substantially in line with the diameter of the tablet, thereby reducing the diameter in that direction. This reduced diameter is described in terms of % diameter, based on the diameter of the tablet before conducting the breaking strength test. The breaking strength or tablet hardness is defined as the force at which the tested tablet/dosage form breaks. Tablets/dosage forms that do not break, but which are deformed due to the force applied are considered to be break-resistant at that particular force.
  • [0111]
    A further test to quantify the strength of tablets/dosage forms is the indentation test using a Texture Analyzer, such as the TA-XT2 Texture Analyzer (Texture Technologies Corp., 18 Fairview Road, Scarsdale, N.Y. 10583). In this method, the tablets/dosage forms are placed on top of a stainless stand with slightly concaved surface and subsequently penetrated by the descending probe of the Texture Analyzer, such as a TA-8A ⅛ inch diameter stainless steel ball probe. Before starting the measurement, the tablets are aligned directly under the probe, such that the descending probe will penetrate the tablet pivotally, i.e. in the center of the tablet, and such that the force of the descending probe is applied substantially perpendicular to the diameter and substantially in line with the thickness of the tablet. First, the probe of the Texture Analyzer starts to move towards the tablet sample at the pre-test speed. When the probe contacts the tablet surface and the trigger force set is reached, the probe continues its movement with the test speed and penetrates the tablet. For each penetration depth of the probe, which will hereinafter be referred to as distance, the corresponding force is measured, and the data are collected. When the probe has reached the desired maximum penetration depth, it changes direction and moves back at the post-test speed, while further data can be collected. The cracking force is defined to be the force of the first local maximum that is reached in the corresponding force/distance diagram and is calculated using for example the Texture Analyzer software Texture Expert Exceed, Version 2.64 English. Without wanting to be bound by any theory, it is believed that at this point, some structural damage to the tablet/dosage form occurs in form of cracking. However, the cracked tablets/dosage forms according to certain embodiments of the present invention remain cohesive, as evidenced by the continued resistance to the descending probe. The corresponding distance at the first local maximum is hereinafter referred to as the penetration depth to crack distance.
  • [0112]
    For the purposes of certain embodiments of the present invention, the term breaking strength refers to the hardness of the tablets/dosage forms that is preferably measured using the Schleuniger apparatus, whereas the term cracking force reflects the strength of the tablets/dosage forms that is preferably measured in the indentation test using a Texture Analyzer.
  • [0113]
    A further parameter of the extended release matrix formulations that can be derived from the indentation test as described above is the work the extended release matrix formulation is subjected to in an indentation test as described above. The work value corresponds to the integral of the force over the distance.
  • [0114]
    The term resistant to crushing is defined for the purposes of certain embodiments of the present invention as referring to dosage forms that can at least be flattened with a bench press as described above without breaking to no more than about 60% thickness, preferably no more than about 50% thickness, more preferred no more than about 40% thickness, even more preferred no more than about 30% thickness and most preferred no more than about 20% thickness, 10% thickness or 5% thickness.
  • [0115]
    For the purpose of certain embodiments of the present invention dosage forms are regarded as resistant to alcohol extraction when the respective dosage form provides an in-vitro dissolution rate, when measured in a USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) comprising 40% ethanol at 37 C., characterized by the percent amount of active released at 0.5 hours, preferably at 0.5 and 0.75 hours, more preferred at 0.5, 0.75 and 1 hour, even more preferred at 0.5, 0.75, 1 and 1.5 hours and most preferred at 0.75, 1, 1.5 and 2 hours of dissolution that deviates no more than about 20% points or preferably no more than about 15% points at each of said time points from the corresponding in-vitro dissolution rate measured in a USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C. without ethanol.
  • [0116]
    The term tamper resistant for the purposes of the present invention refers to dosage forms which at least provide resistance to crushing or resistance to alcohol extraction, preferably both, as defined above and may have further tamper resistant characteristics.
  • [0117]
    For the purpose of the present invention the term active agent is defined as a pharmaceutically active substance which includes without limitation opioid analgesics.
  • [0118]
    For purposes of the present invention, the term opioid analgesic includes single compounds and compositions of compounds selected from the group of opioids and which provide an analgesic effect such as one single opioid agonist or a combination of opioid agonists, one single mixed opioid agonist-antagonist or a combination of mixed opioid agonist-antagonists, or one single partial opioid agonist or a combination of partial opioid agonists and combinations of an opioid agonists, mixed opioid agonist-antagonists and partial opioid agonists with one ore more opioid antagonists, stereoisomers, ether or ester, salts, hydrates and solvates thereof, compositions of any of the foregoing, and the like.
  • [0119]
    The present invention disclosed herein is specifically meant to encompass the use of the opioid analgesic in form of any pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.
  • [0120]
    Pharmaceutically acceptable salts include, but are not limited to, inorganic acid salts such as hydrochloride, hydrobromide, sulfate, phosphate and the like; organic acid salts such as formate, acetate, trifluoroacetate, maleate, tartrate and the like; sulfonates such as methanesulfonate, benzenesulfonate, p-toluenesulfonate, and the like; amino acid salts such as arginate, asparaginate, glutamate and the like, and metal salts such as sodium salt, potassium salt, cesium salt and the like; alkaline earth metals such as calcium salt, magnesium salt and the like; organic amine salts such as triethylamine salt, pyridine salt, picoline salt, ethanolamine salt, triethanolamine salt, dicyclohexylamine salt, N,N′-dibenzylethylenediamine salt and the like.
  • [0121]
    The opioids used according to the present invention may contain one or more asymmetric centers and may give rise to enantiomers, diastereomers, or other stereoisomeric forms. The present invention is also meant to encompass the use of all such possible forms as well as their racemic and resolved forms and compositions thereof. When the compounds described herein contain olefinic double bonds or other centers of geometric asymmetry, it is intended to include both E and Z geometric isomers. All tautomers are intended to be encompassed by the present invention as well.
  • [0122]
    As used herein, the term stereoisomers is a general term for all isomers of individual molecules that differ only in the orientation of their atoms is space. It includes enantiomers and isomers of compounds with more than one chiral center that are not mirror images of one another (diastereomers).
  • [0123]
    The term chiral center refers to a carbon atom to which four different groups are attached.
  • [0124]
    The term enantiomer or enantiomeric refers to a molecule that is nonsuperimposable on its mirror image and hence optically active wherein the enantiomer rotates the plane of polarized light in one direction and its mirror image rotates the plane of polarized light in the opposite direction.
  • [0125]
    The term racemic refers to a mixture of equal parts of enantiomers and which is optically inactive.
  • [0126]
    The term resolution refers to the separation or concentration or depletion of one of the two enantiomeric forms of a molecule.
  • [0127]
    Opioid agonists useful in the present invention include, but are not limited to, alfentanil, allylprodine, alphaprodine, anileridine, benzylmorphine, bezitramide, buprenorphine, butorphanol, clonitazene, codeine, desomorphine, dextromoramide, dezocine, diampromide, diamorphone, dihydrocodeine, dihydromorphine, dimenoxadol, dimepheptanol, dimethylthiambutene, dioxaphetyl butyrate, dipipanone, eptazocine, ethoheptazine, ethylmethylthiambutene, ethylmorphine, etonitazene, etorphine, dihydroetorphine, fentanyl and derivatives, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, hydroxypethidine, isomethadone, ketobemidone, levorphanol, levophenacylmorphan, lofentanil, meperidine, meptazinol, metazocine, methadone, metopon, morphine, myrophine, narceine, nicomorphine, norlevorphanol, normethadone, nalorphine, nalbuphene, normorphine, norpipanone, opium, oxycodone, oxymorphone, papavereturn, pentazocine, phenadoxone, phenomorphan, phenazocine, phenoperidine, piminodine, piritramide, propheptazine, promedol, properidine, propoxyphene, sufentanil, tilidine, tramadol, pharmaceutically acceptable salts, hydrates and solvates thereof, mixtures of any of the foregoing, and the like.
  • [0128]
    Opioid antagonists useful in combination with opioid agonists as described above are e.g. naloxone, naltrexone and nalmephene or pharmaceutically acceptable salts, hydrates and solvates thereof, mixtures of any of the foregoing, and the like.
  • [0129]
    In certain embodiments e.g. a combination of oxycodone HCl and naloxone HCl in a ratio of 2:1 is used.
  • [0130]
    In certain embodiments, the opioid analgesic is selected from codeine, morphine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, or oxymorphone or pharmaceutically acceptable salts, hydrates and solvates thereof, mixtures of any of the foregoing, and the like.
  • [0131]
    In certain embodiments, the opioid analgesic is oxycodone, hydromorphone or oxymorphone or a salt thereof such as e.g. the hydrochloride. The dosage form comprises from about 5 mg to about 500 mg oxycodone hydrochloride, from about 1 mg to about 100 mg hydromorphone hydrochloride or from about 5 mg to about 500 mg oxymorphone hydrochloride. If other salts, derivatives or forms are used, equimolar amounts of any other pharmaceutically acceptable salt or derivative or form including but not limited to hydrates and solvates or the free base may be used. The dosage form comprises e.g. 5 mg, 7.5 mg, 10 mg, 15 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg, 40 mg, 45 mg, 60 mg, or 80 mg, 90 mg, 120 mg or 160 mg oxycodone hydrochloride or equimolar amounts of any other pharmaceutically acceptable salt, derivative or form including but not limited to hydrates and solvates or of the free base. The dosage form comprises e.g. 5 mg, 7.5 mg, 10 mg, 15 mg, 20 mg, 30, mg, 40 mg, 45 mg, 60 mg, or 80 mg, 90 mg, 120 mg or 160 mg oxymorphone hydrochloride or equimolar amounts of any other pharmaceutically acceptable salt, derivative or form including but not limited to hydrates and solvates or of the free base. The dosage form comprises e.g. 2 mg, 4 mg, 8 mg, 12 mg, 16 mg, 24 mg, 32 mg, 48 mg or 64 mg hydromorphone hydrochloride or equimolar amounts of any other pharmaceutically acceptable salt, derivative or form including but not limited to hydrates and solvates or of the free base.
  • [0132]
    WO 2005/097801 A1, U.S. Pat. No. 7,129,248 B2 and US 2006/0173029 A1, all of which are hereby incorporated by reference, describe a process for preparing oxycodone hydrochloride having a 14-hydroxycodeinone level of less than about 25 ppm, preferably of less than about 15 ppm, less than about 10 ppm, or less than about 5 ppm, more preferably of less than about 2 ppm, less than about 1 ppm, less than about 0.5 ppm or less than about 0.25 ppm.
  • [0133]
    The term ppm as used herein means parts per million. Regarding 14-hydroxycodeinone, ppm means parts per million of 14-hydroxycodeinone in a particular sample product. The 14-hydroxycodeinone level can be determined by any method known in the art, preferably by HPLC analysis using UV detection.
  • [0134]
    In certain embodiments of the present invention, wherein the active agent is oxycodone hydrochloride, oxycodone hydrochloride is used having a 14-hydroxycodeinone level of less than about 25 ppm, preferably of less than about 15 ppm, less than about 10 ppm, or less than about 5 ppm, more preferably of less than about 2 ppm, less than about 1 ppm, less than about 0.5 ppm or less than about 0.25 ppm.
  • [0135]
    In certain other embodiments other therapeutically active agents may be used in accordance with the present invention, either in combination with opioids or instead of opioids. Examples of such therapeutically active agents include antihistamines (e.g., dimenhydrinate, diphenhydramine, chlorpheniramine and dexchlorpheniramine maleate), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (e.g., naproxen, diclofenac, indomethacin, ibuprofen, sulindac, Cox-2 inhibitors) and acetaminophen, anti-emetics (e.g., metoclopramide, methylnaltrexone), anti-epileptics (e.g., phenyloin, meprobmate and nitrazepam), vasodilators (e.g., nifedipine, papaverine, diltiazem and nicardipine), anti-tussive agents and expectorants (e.g. codeine phosphate), anti-asthmatics (e.g. theophylline), antacids, anti-spasmodics (e.g. atropine, scopolamine), antidiabetics (e.g., insulin), diuretics (e.g., ethacrynic acid, bendrofluthiazide), anti-hypotensives (e.g., propranolol, clonidine), antihypertensives (e.g., clonidine, methyldopa), bronchodilatiors (e.g., albuterol), steroids (e.g., hydrocortisone, triamcinolone, prednisone), antibiotics (e.g., tetracycline), antihemorrhoidals, hypnotics, psychotropics, antidiarrheals, mucolytics, sedatives, decongestants (e.g. pseudoephedrine), laxatives, vitamins, stimulants (including appetite suppressants such as phenylpropanolamine) and cannabinoids, as well as pharmaceutically acceptable salts, hydrates, and solvates of the same.
  • [0136]
    In certain embodiments, the invention is directed to the use of Cox-2 inhibitors as active agents, in combination with opioid analgesics or instead of opioid analgesics, for example the use of Cox-2 inhibitors such as meloxicam (4-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(5-methyl-2-thiazolyl)-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide-1,1-dioxide), as disclosed in U.S. Ser. No. 10/056,347 and 11/825,938, which are hereby incorporated by reference, nabumetone (4-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl)-2-butanone), as disclosed in U.S. Ser. No. 10/056,348, which is hereby incorporated by reference, celecoxib (4-[5-(4-methylphenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]benzenesulfonamide), as disclosed in U.S. Ser. No. 11/698,394, which is hereby incorporated by reference, nimesulide (N-(4-Nitro-2-phenoxyphenyl)methanesulfonamide), as disclosed in U.S. Serial No. 10/057,630, which is hereby incorporated by reference, and N-[3-(formylamino)-4-oxo-6-phenoxy-4H-1-benzopyran-7-yl]methanesulfonamide (T-614), as disclosed in U.S. Ser. No. 10/057,632, which is hereby incorporated by reference.
  • [0137]
    The present invention is also directed to the dosage forms utilizing active agents such as for example, benzodiazepines, barbiturates or amphetamines. These may be combined with the respective antagonists.
  • [0138]
    The term benzodiazepines refers to benzodiazepines and drugs that are derivatives of benzodiazepine that are able to depress the central nervous system. Benzodiazepines include, but are not limited to, alprazolam, bromazepam, chlordiazepoxide, clorazepate, diazepam, estazolam, flurazepam, halazepam, ketazolam, lorazepam, nitrazepam, oxazepam, prazepam, quazepam, temazepam, triazolam, methylphenidate as well as pharmaceutically acceptable salts, hydrates, and solvates and mixtures thereof. Benzodiazepine antagonists that can be used in the present invention include, but are not limited to, flumazenil as well as pharmaceutically acceptable salts, hydrates, and solvates.
  • [0139]
    Barbiturates refer to sedative-hypnotic drugs derived from barbituric acid (2,4,6,-trioxohexahydropyrimidine). Barbiturates include, but are not limited to, amobarbital, aprobarbotal, butabarbital, butalbital, methohexital, mephobarbital, metharbital, pentobarbital, phenobarbital, secobarbital and as well as pharmaceutically acceptable salts, hydrates, and solvates mixtures thereof. Barbiturate antagonists that can be used in the present invention include, but are not limited to, amphetamines as well as pharmaceutically acceptable salts, hydrates, and solvates.
  • [0140]
    Stimulants refer to drugs that stimulate the central nervous system. Stimulants include, but are not limited to, amphetamines, such as amphetamine, dextroamphetamine resin complex, dextroamphetamine, methamphetamine, methylphenidate as well as pharmaceutically acceptable salts, hydrates, and solvates and mixtures thereof. Stimulant antagonists that can be used in the present invention include, but are not limited to, benzodiazepines, as well as pharmaceutically acceptable salts, hydrates, and solvates as described herein.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0141]
    FIG. 1 is a photograph that depicts a top view (view is in line with the thickness of the tablet) of tablets of Example 7.1 before (left side) and after (right side) the breaking strength test using the Schleuniger Model 6D apparatus.
  • [0142]
    FIG. 2 is a photograph that depicts a top view (view is in line with the thickness of the tablet) of tablets of Example 7.2 before (left side) and after (right side) the breaking strength test using the Schleuniger Model 6D apparatus.
  • [0143]
    FIG. 3 is a photograph that depicts a top view (view is in line with the thickness of the tablet) of tablets of Example 7.3 before (left side) and after (right side) the breaking strength test using the Schleuniger Model 6D apparatus.
  • [0144]
    FIG. 4 is a photograph that depicts a top view (view is in line with the thickness of the tablet) of a tablet of Example 7.1 after flattening with a Carver manual bench press (hydraulic unit model #3912).
  • [0145]
    FIG. 5 is a photograph that depicts a top view (view is in line with the thickness of the tablet) of a tablet of Example 7.2 after flattening with a Carver manual bench press (hydraulic unit model #3912).
  • [0146]
    FIG. 6 is a photograph that depicts a top view (view is in line with the thickness of the tablet) of a tablet of Example 7.3 after flattening with a Carver manual bench press (hydraulic unit model #3912).
  • [0147]
    FIG. 7 is a photograph that depicts a top view (view is in line with the thickness of the tablet) of a tablet of Example 7.1 after 10 manually conducted hammer strikes.
  • [0148]
    FIG. 8 is a photograph that depicts a top view (view is in line with the thickness of the tablet) of a tablet of Example 7.2 after 10 manually conducted hammer strikes.
  • [0149]
    FIG. 9 is a photograph that depicts a top view (view is in line with the thickness of the tablet) of a tablet of Example 7.3 after 10 manually conducted hammer strikes.
  • [0150]
    FIG. 10 is a diagram that depicts the temperature profile of the curing process of Example 13.1.
  • [0151]
    FIG. 11 is a diagram that depicts the temperature profile of the curing process of Example 13.2.
  • [0152]
    FIG. 12 is a diagram that depicts the temperature profile of the curing process of Example 13.3.
  • [0153]
    FIG. 13 is a diagram that depicts the temperature profile of the curing process of Example 13.4.
  • [0154]
    FIG. 14 is a diagram that depicts the temperature profile of the curing process of Example 13.5.
  • [0155]
    FIG. 15 is a diagram that depicts the temperature profile of the curing process of Example 14.1.
  • [0156]
    FIG. 16 is a diagram that depicts the temperature profile of the curing process of Example 14.2.
  • [0157]
    FIG. 17 is a diagram that depicts the temperature profile of the curing process of Example 14.3.
  • [0158]
    FIG. 18 is a diagram that depicts the temperature profile of the curing process of Example 14.4.
  • [0159]
    FIG. 19 is a diagram that depicts the temperature profile of the curing process of Example 14.5.
  • [0160]
    FIG. 20 is a diagram of Example 20 indentation test performed with an Example 13.1 tablet (cured for 30 minutes, uncoated).
  • [0161]
    FIG. 21 is a diagram of Example 20 indentation test performed with an Example 13.2 tablet (cured for 30 minutes, uncoated).
  • [0162]
    FIG. 22 is a diagram of Example 20 indentation test performed with an Example 13.3 tablet (cured for 30 minutes, uncoated).
  • [0163]
    FIG. 23 is a diagram of Example 20 indentation test performed with an Example 13.4 tablet (cured for 30 minutes, uncoated).
  • [0164]
    FIG. 24 is a diagram of Example 20 indentation test performed with an Example 13.5 tablet (cured for 30 minutes, uncoated).
  • [0165]
    FIG. 25 is a diagram of Example 20 indentation test performed with an Example 17.1 tablet (cured for 15 minutes at 72 C., coated).
  • [0166]
    FIG. 26 is a diagram of Example 20 indentation test performed with an Example 18.2 tablet (cured for 15 minutes at 72 C., coated).
  • [0167]
    FIG. 27 is a diagram of Example 20 indentation test performed with an Example 14.1 tablet (cured for 1 hour, coated).
  • [0168]
    FIG. 28 is a diagram of Example 20 indentation test performed with an Example 14.2 tablet (cured for 1 hour, coated).
  • [0169]
    FIG. 29 is a diagram of Example 20 indentation test performed with an Example 14.3 tablet (cured for 1 hour, coated).
  • [0170]
    FIG. 30 is a diagram of Example 20 indentation test performed with an Example 14.4 tablet (cured for 1 hour, coated).
  • [0171]
    FIG. 31 is a diagram of Example 20 indentation test performed with an Example 14.5 tablet (cured for 1 hour, coated).
  • [0172]
    FIG. 32 is a diagram of Example 20 indentation test performed with an Example 16.1 tablet (cured for 15 minutes, coated).
  • [0173]
    FIG. 33 is a diagram of Example 20 indentation test performed with an Example 16.2 tablet (cured for 15 minutes, coated).
  • [0174]
    FIG. 34 is a diagram of Example 21 indentation tests performed with an Example 16.1 tablet (cured for 15 minutes, coated) and with a commercial Oxycontin 60 mg tablet.
  • [0175]
    FIG. 35 is a diagram of Example 21 indentation tests performed with an Example 16.2 tablet (cured for 15 minutes, coated) and with a commercial Oxycontin 80 mg tablet.
  • [0176]
    FIG. 36 shows the mean plasma oxycodone concentration versus time profile on linear scale [Population: Full Analysis (Fed State)] according to Example 26.
  • [0177]
    FIG. 37 shows the mean plasma oxycodone concentration versus time profile on log-linear scale [Population: Full Analysis (Fed State)] according to Example 26.
  • [0178]
    FIG. 38 shows the mean plasma oxycodone concentration versus time profile on linear scale [Population: Full Analysis (Fasted State)] according to Example 26.
  • [0179]
    FIG. 39 shows the mean plasma oxycodone concentration versus time profile on log-linear scale [Population: Full Analysis (Fasted State)] according to Example 26.
  • [0180]
    FIG. 40 shows representative images of crushed OxyContin 10 mg and crushed Example 7.2 tablets, according to Example 27.
  • [0181]
    FIG. 41 shows representative images of milled Example 7.2 and OxyContin 10 mg tablets before and after 45 minutes of dissolution, according to Example 27.
  • [0182]
    FIG. 42 shows dissolution profiles of milled Example 7.2 tablets and crushed OxyContin 10 mg tablets, according to Example 27.
  • [0183]
    FIG. 43 shows particle size distribution graphs of milled tablets (OxyContin 10 mg, Example 7.2 and Example 14.5 tablets), according to Example 27.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • [0184]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a process of preparing a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form,
  • [0000]
    comprising at least the steps of:
      • (a) combining at least
        • (1) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000, and
        • (2) at least one active agent, to form a composition;
      • (b) shaping the composition to form an extended release matrix formulation; and
      • (c) curing said extended release matrix formulation comprising at least a curing step of subjecting the extended release matrix formulation to a temperature which is at least the softening temperature of said polyethylene oxide for a time period of at least about 1 minute.
        Preferably, the curing is conducted at atmospheric pressure.
  • [0190]
    In a certain embodiment the present invention concerns a process of preparing a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form, comprising at least the steps of:
      • (a) combining at least
        • (1) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an molecular weight of at least 1,000,000; and
        • (2) at least one active agent, to form a composition;
      • (b) shaping the composition to form an extended release matrix formulation; and
      • (c) curing said extended release matrix formulation comprising at least a curing step of subjecting the extended release matrix formulation to a temperature which is at least the softening temperature of said polyethylene oxide for a time period of at least 5 minutes. Preferably, the curing is conducted at atmospheric pressure.
  • [0196]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a process of preparing a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form,
  • [0000]
    comprising at least the steps of:
      • (a) combining at least
        • (1) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000, and
        • (2) at least one active agent, to form a composition;
      • (b) shaping the composition to form an extended release matrix formulation; and
      • (c) curing said extended release matrix formulation comprising at least a curing step wherein said polyethylene oxide at least partially melts.
        Preferably, the curing is conducted at atmospheric pressure.
  • [0202]
    In certain embodiments the composition is shaped in step b) to form an extended release matrix formulation in the form of tablet. For shaping the extended release matrix formulation in the form of tablet a direct compression process can be used. Direct compression is an efficient and simple process for shaping tablets by avoiding process steps like wet granulation. However, any other process for manufacturing tablets as known in the art may be used, such as wet granulation and subsequent compression of the granules to form tablets.
  • [0203]
    In one embodiment, the curing of the extended release matrix formulation in step c) comprises at least a curing step wherein the high molecular weight polyethylene oxide in the extended release matrix formulation at least partially melts. For example, at least about 20% or at least about 30% of the high molecular weight polyethylene oxide in the extended release matrix formulation melts. Preferably, at least about 40% or at least about 50%, more preferably at least about 60%, at least about 75% or at least about 90% of the high molecular weight polyethylene oxide in the extended release matrix formulation melts. In a preferred embodiment, about 100% of the high molecular weight polyethylene oxide melts.
  • [0204]
    In other embodiments, the curing of the extended release matrix formulation in step c) comprises at least a curing step wherein the extended release matrix formulation is subjected to an elevated temperature for a certain period of time. In such embodiments, the temperature employed in step c), i.e. the curing temperature, is at least as high as the softening temperature of the high molecular weight polyethylene oxide. Without wanting to be bound to any theory it is believed that the curing at a temperature that is at least as high as the softening temperature of the high molecular weight polyethylene oxide causes the polyethylene oxide particles to at least adhere to each other or even to fuse. According to some embodiments the curing temperature is at least about 60 C. or at least about 62 C. or ranges from about 62 C. to about 90 C. or from about 62 C. to about 85 C. or from about 62 C. to about 80 C. or from about 65 C. to about 90 C. or from about 65 C. to about 85 C. or from about 65 C. to about 80 C. The curing temperature preferably ranges from about 68 C. to about 90 C. or from about 68 C. to about 85 C. or from about 68 C. to about 80 C., more preferably from about 70 C. to about 90 C. or from about 70 C. to about 85 C. or from about 70 C. to about 80 C., most preferably from about 72 C. to about 90 C. or from about 72 C. to about 85 C. or from about 72 C. to about 80 C. The curing temperature may be at least about 60 C. or at least about 62 C., but less than about 90 C. or less than about 80 C. Preferably, it is in the range of from about 62 C. to about 72 C., in particular from about 68 C. to about 72 C. Preferably, the curing temperature is at least as high as the lower limit of the softening temperature range of the high molecular weight polyethylene oxide or at least about 62 C. or at least about 68 C. More preferably, the curing temperature is within the softening temperature range of the high molecular weight polyethylene oxide or at least about 70 C. Even more preferably, the curing temperature is at least as high as the upper limit of the softening temperature range of the high molecular weight polyethylene oxide or at least about 72 C. In an alternative embodiment, the curing temperature is higher than the upper limit of the softening temperature range of the high molecular weight polyethylene oxide, for example the curing temperature is at least about 75 C. or at least about 80 C.
  • [0205]
    In those embodiments where the curing of the extended release matrix formulation in step c) comprises at least a curing step wherein the extended release matrix formulation is subjected to an elevated temperature for a certain period of time, this period of time is hereinafter referred to as the curing time. For the measurement of the curing time a starting point and an end point of the curing step is defined. For the purposes of the present invention, the starting point of the curing step is defined to be the point in time when the curing temperature is reached.
  • [0206]
    In certain embodiments, the temperature profile during the curing step shows a plateau-like form between the starting point and the end point of the curing. In such embodiments the end point of the curing step is defined to be the point in time when the heating is stopped or at least reduced, e.g. by terminating or reducing the heating and/or by starting a subsequent cooling step, and the temperature subsequently drops below the curing temperature by more than about 10 C. and/or below the lower limit of the softening temperature range of high molecular weight polyethylene oxide, for example below about 62 C. When the curing temperature is reached and the curing step is thus started, deviations from the curing temperature in the course of the curing step can occur. Such deviations are tolerated as long as they do not exceed a value of about 10 C., preferably about 6 C., and more preferably about 3 C. For example, if a curing temperature of at least about 75 C. is to be maintained, the measured temperature may temporarily increase to a value of about 85 C., preferably about 81 C. and more preferably about 78 C., and the measured temperature may also temporarily drop down to a value of about 65 C., preferably about 69 C. and more preferably about 72 C. In the cases of a larger decrease of the temperature and/or in the case that the temperature drops below the lower limit of the softening temperature range of high molecular weight polyethylene oxide, for example below about 62 C., the curing step is discontinued, i.e. an end point is reached. Curing can be restarted by again reaching the curing temperature.
  • [0207]
    In other embodiments, the temperature profile during the curing step shows a parabolic or triangular form between the starting point and the end point of the curing. This means that after the starting point, i.e. the point in time when the curing temperature is reached, the temperature further increases to reach a maximum, and then decreases. In such embodiments, the end point of the curing step is defined to be the point in time when the temperature drops below the curing temperature.
  • [0208]
    In this context, it has to be noted that depending on the apparatus used for the curing, which will hereinafter be called curing device, different kinds of temperatures within the curing device can be measured to characterize the curing temperature.
  • [0209]
    In certain embodiments, the curing step may take place in an oven. In such embodiments, the temperature inside the oven is measured. Based thereon, when the curing step takes place in an oven, the curing temperature is defined to be the target inside temperature of the oven and the starting point of the curing step is defined to be the point in time when the inside temperature of the oven reaches the curing temperature. The end point of the curing step is defined to be (1) the point in time when the heating is stopped or at least reduced and the temperature inside the oven subsequently drops below the curing temperature by more than about 10 C. and/or below the lower limit of the softening temperature range of high molecular weight polyethylene oxide, for example below about 62 C., in a plateau-like temperature profile or (2) the point in time when the temperature inside the oven drops below the curing temperature in a parabolic or triangular temperature profile. Preferably, the curing step starts when the temperature inside the oven reaches a curing temperature of at least about 62 C., at least about 68 C. or at least about 70 C., more preferably of at least about 72 C. or at least about 75 C. In preferred embodiments, the temperature profile during the curing step shows a plateau-like form, wherein the curing temperature, i.e. the inside temperature of the oven, is preferably at least about 68 C., for example about 70 C. or about 72 C. or about 73 C., or lies within a range of from about 70 C. to about 75 C., and the curing time is preferably in the range of from about 30 minutes to about 20 hours, more preferably from about 30 minutes to about 15 hours, or from about 30 minutes to about 4 hours or from about 30 minutes to about 2 hours. Most preferably, the curing time is in the range of from about 30 minutes to about 90 minutes.
  • [0210]
    In certain other embodiments, the curing takes place in curing devices that are heated by an air flow and comprise a heated air supply (inlet) and an exhaust, like for example a coating pan or fluidized bed. Such curing devices will hereinafter be called convection curing devices. In such curing devices, it is possible to measure the temperature of the inlet air, i.e. the temperature of the heated air entering the convection curing device and/or the temperature of the exhaust air, i.e. the temperature of the air leaving the convection curing device. It is also possible to determine or at least estimate the temperature of the formulations inside the convection curing device during the curing step, e.g. by using infrared temperature measurement instruments, such as an IR gun, or by measuring the temperature using a temperature probe that was placed inside the curing device near the extended release matrix formulations. Based thereon, when the curing step takes place in a convection curing device, the curing temperature can be defined and the curing time can be measured as the following.
  • [0211]
    In one embodiment, wherein the curing time is measured according to method 1, the curing temperature is defined to be the target inlet air temperature and the starting point of the curing step is defined to be the point in time when the inlet air temperature reaches the curing temperature. The end point of the curing step is defined to be (1) the point in time when the heating is stopped or at least reduced and the inlet air temperature subsequently drops below the curing temperature by more than about 10 C. and/or below the lower limit of the softening temperature range of high molecular weight polyethylene oxide, for example below about 62 C., in a plateau-like temperature profile or (2) the point in time when the inlet air temperature drops below the curing temperature in a parabolic or triangular temperature profile. Preferably, the curing step starts according to method 1, when the inlet air temperature reaches a curing temperature of at least about 62 C., at least about 68 C. or at least about 70 C., more preferably, of at least about 72 C. or at least about 75 C. In a preferred embodiment, the temperature profile during the curing step shows a plateau-like form, wherein the curing temperature, i.e. the target inlet air temperature, is preferably at least about 72 C., for example about 75 C., and the curing time which is measured according to method 1 is preferably in the range of from about 15 minutes to about 2 hours, for example about 30 minutes or about 1 hour.
  • [0212]
    In another embodiment, wherein the curing time is measured according to method 2, the curing temperature is defined to be the target exhaust air temperature and the starting point of the curing step is defined to be the point in time when the exhaust air temperature reaches the curing temperature. The end point of the curing step is defined to be (1) the point in time when the heating is stopped or at least reduced and the exhaust air temperature subsequently drops below the curing temperature by more than about 10 C. and/or below the lower limit of the softening temperature range of high molecular weight polyethylene oxide, for example below about 62 C., in a plateau-like temperature profile or (2) the point in time when the exhaust air temperature drops below the curing temperature in a parabolic or triangular temperature profile. Preferably, the curing step starts according to method 2, when the exhaust air temperature reaches a curing temperature of at least about 62 C., at least about 68 C. or at least about 70 C., more preferably, of at least about 72 C. or at least about 75 C. In preferred embodiments, the temperature profile during the curing step shows a plateau-like form, wherein the curing temperature, i.e. the target exhaust air temperature, is preferably at least about 68 C., at least about 70 C. or at least about 72 C., for example the target exhaust air temperature is about 68 C., about 70 C., about 72 C., about 75 C. or about 78 C., and the curing time which is measured according to method 2 is preferably in the range of from about 1 minute to about 2 hours, preferably from about 5 minutes to about 90 minutes, for example the curing time is about 5 minutes, about 10 minutes, about 15 minutes, about 30 minutes, about 60 minutes, about 70 minutes, about 75 minutes or about 90 minutes. In a more preferred embodiment, the curing time which is measured according to method 2 is in the range of from about 15 minutes to about 1 hour.
  • [0213]
    In a further embodiment, wherein the curing time is measured according to method 3, the curing temperature is defined to be the target temperature of the extended release matrix formulations and the starting point of the curing step is defined to be the point in time when the temperature of the extended release matrix formulations, which can be measured for example by an IR gun, reaches the curing temperature. The end point of the curing step is defined to be (1) the point in time when the heating is stopped or at least reduced and the temperature of the extended release matrix formulations subsequently drops below the curing temperature by more than about 10 C. and/or below the lower limit of the softening temperature range of high molecular weight polyethylene oxide, for example below about 62 C., in a plateau-like temperature profile or (2) the point in time when the temperature of the extended release matrix formulations drops below the curing temperature in a parabolic or triangular temperature profile. Preferably, the curing step starts according to method 3, when the temperature of the extended release matrix formulations reaches a curing temperature of at least about 62 C., at least about 68 C. or at least about 70 C., more preferably, of at least about 72 C. or at least about 75 C.
  • [0214]
    In still another embodiment, wherein the curing time is measured according to method 4, the curing temperature is defined to be the target temperature measured using a temperature probe, such as a wire thermocouple, that was placed inside the curing device near the extended release matrix formulations and the starting point of the curing step is defined to be the point in time when the temperature measured using a temperature probe that was placed inside the curing device near the extended release matrix formulations reaches the curing temperature. The end point of the curing step is defined to be (1) the point in time when the heating is stopped or at least reduced and the temperature measured using the temperature probe subsequently drops below the curing temperature by more than about 10 C. and/or below the lower limit of the softening temperature range of high molecular weight polyethylene oxide, for example below about 62 C., in a plateau-like temperature profile or (2) the point in time when the temperature measured using the temperature probe drops below the curing temperature in a parabolic or triangular temperature profile. Preferably, the curing step starts according to method 4, when the temperature measured using a temperature probe that was placed inside the curing device near the extended release matrix formulations reaches a curing temperature of at least about 62 C., at least about 68 C. or at least about 70 C., more preferably, of at least about 72 C. or at least about 75 C. In a preferred embodiment, the temperature profile during the curing step shows a plateau-like form, wherein the curing temperature, i.e. the target temperature measured using a temperature probe that was placed inside the curing device near the extended release matrix formulations, is preferably at least about 68 C., for example it is about 70 C., and the curing time which is measured according to method 4 is preferably in the range of from about 15 minutes to about 2 hours, for example the curing time is about 60 minutes or about 90 minutes.
  • [0215]
    If curing takes place in a convection curing device, the curing time can be measured by any one of methods 1, 2, 3 or 4. In a preferred embodiment, the curing time is measured according to method 2.
  • [0216]
    In certain embodiments, the curing temperature is defined as a target temperature range, for example the curing temperature is defined as a target inlet air temperature range or a target exhaust air temperature range. In such embodiments, the starting point of the curing step is defined to be the point in time when the lower limit of the target temperature range is reached, and the end point of the curing step is defined to be the point in time when the heating is stopped or at least reduced, and the temperature subsequently drops below the lower limit of the target temperature range by more than about 10 C. and/or below the lower limit of the softening temperature range of high molecular weight polyethylene oxide, for example below about 62 C.
  • [0217]
    The curing time, i.e. the time period the extended release matrix formulation is subjected to the curing temperature, which can for example be measured according to methods 1, 2, 3 and 4 as described above, is at least about 1 minute or at least about 5 minutes. The curing time may vary from about 1 minute to about 24 hours or from about 5 minutes to about 20 hours or from about 10 minutes to about 15 hours or from about 15 minutes to about 10 hours or from about 30 minutes to about 5 hours depending on the specific composition and on the formulation and the curing temperature. The parameter of the composition, the curing time and the curing temperature are chosen to achieve the tamper resistance as described herein. According to certain embodiments the curing time varies from about 15 minutes to about 30 minutes. According to further embodiments wherein the curing temperature is at least about 60 C. or at least about 62 C., preferably at least about 68 C., at least about 70 C., at least about 72 C. or at least about 75 C. or varies from about 62 C. to about 85 C. or from about 65 C. to about 85 C. the curing time is preferably at least about 15 minutes, at least about 30 minutes, at least about 60 minutes, at least about 75 minutes, at least about 90 minutes or about 120 minutes. In preferred embodiments, wherein the curing temperature is for example at least about 62 C., at least about 68 C. or at least about 70 C., preferably at least about 72 C. or at least about 75 C., or ranges from about 62 C. to about 80 C., from about 65 C. to about 80 C., from about 68 C. to about 80 C., from about 70 C. to about 80 C. or from about 72 C. to about 80 C., the curing time is preferably at least about 1 minute or at least about 5 minutes. More preferably, the curing time is at least about 10 minutes, at least about 15 minutes or at least about 30 minutes. In certain such embodiments, the curing time can be chosen to be as short as possible while still achieving the desired tamper resistance. For example, the curing time preferably does not exceed about 5 hours, more preferably it does not exceed about 3 hours and most preferably it does not exceed about 2 hours. Preferably, the curing time is in the range of from about 1 minute to about 5 hours, from about 5 minutes to about 3 hours, from about 15 minutes to about 2 hours or from about 15 minutes to about 1 hour. Any combination of the curing temperatures and the curing times as disclosed herein lies within the scope of the present invention.
  • [0218]
    In certain embodiments, the composition is only subjected to the curing temperature until the high molecular weight polyethylene oxide present in the extended release matrix formulation has reached its softening temperature and/or at least partially melts. In certain such embodiments, the curing time may be less than about 5 minutes, for example the curing time may vary from about 0 minutes to about 3 hours or from about 1 minute to about 2 hours or from about 2 minutes to about 1 hour. Instant curing is possible by choosing a curing device which allows for an instant heating of the high molecular weight polyethylene oxide in the extended release matrix formulation to at least its softening temperature, so that the high molecular weight polyethylene oxide at least partially melts. Such curing devices are for example microwave ovens, ultrasound devices, light irradiation apparatus such as UV-irradiation apparatus, ultra-high frequency (UHF) fields or any method known to the person skilled in the art.
  • [0219]
    The skilled person is aware that the size of the extended release matrix formulation may determine the required curing time and curing temperature to achieve the desired tamper resistance. Without wanting to be bound by any theory, it is believed that in the case of a large extended release matrix formulation, such as a large tablet, a longer curing time is necessary to conduct the heat into the interior of the formulation than in the case of a corresponding formulation with smaller size. Higher temperature increases the thermal conductivity rate and thereby decreases the required curing time.
  • [0220]
    The curing step c) may take place in an oven. Advantageously, the curing step c) takes place in a bed of free flowing extended release matrix formulations as e.g. in a coating pan. The coating pan allows an efficient batch wise curing step which can subsequently be followed by a coating step without the need to transfer the dosage forms, e.g. the tablets. Such a process may comprise the steps of:
      • (a) combining at least
        • (1) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000, and
        • (2) at least one active agent,
        • to form a composition;
      • (b) shaping said composition to form the extended release matrix formulation in the form of a tablet by direct compression;
      • (c) curing said tablet by
        • subjecting a bed of free flowing tablets to a temperature from about 62 C. to about 90 C., preferably from about 70 C. to about 90 C. for a time period of at least about 1 minute or at least about 5 minutes, preferably of at least about 30 minutes, in a coating pan and
        • subsequently cooling the bed of free flowing tablets to a temperature of below about 50 C.;
        • and subsequently
      • (d) coating the dosage form in said coating pan.
  • [0231]
    In certain embodiments, an additional curing step can follow after step d) of coating the dosage form. An additional curing step can be performed as described for curing step c). In certain such embodiments, the curing temperature of the additional curing step is preferably at least about 70 C., at least about 72 C. or at least about 75 C., and the curing time is preferably in the range of from about 15 minutes to about 1 hour, for example about 30 minutes.
  • [0232]
    In certain embodiments an antioxidant, e.g. BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) is added to the composition.
  • [0233]
    In certain embodiments, the curing step c) leads to a decrease in the density of the extended release matrix formulation, such that the density of the cured extended release matrix formulation is lower than the density of the extended release matrix formulation prior to the curing step c). Preferably, the density of the cured extended release matrix formulation in comparison to the density of the uncured extended release matrix formulation decreases by at least about 0.5%. More preferably, the density of the cured extended release matrix formulation in comparison to the density of the uncured extended release matrix formulation decreases by at least about 0.7%, at least about 0.8%, at least about 1.0%, at least about 2.0% or at least about 2.5%. Without wanting to be bound by any theory, it is believed that the extended release matrix formulation, due to the absence of elevated pressure during the curing step c), expands, resulting in a density decrease.
  • [0234]
    According to a further aspect of the invention, the density of the extended release matrix formulation in the solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form, preferably in a dosage form containing oxycodone HCl as active agent, is equal to or less than about 1.20 g/cm3. Preferably, it is equal to or less than about 1.19 g/cm3, equal to or less than about 1.18 g/cm3, or equal to or less than about 1.17 g/cm3. For example, the density of the extended release matrix formulation is in the range of from about 1.10 g/cm3 to about 1.20 g/cm3, from about 1.11 g/cm3 to about 1.20 g/cm3, or from about 1.11 g/cm3 to about 1.19 g/cm3. Preferably it is in the range of from about 1.12 g/cm3 to about 1.19 g/cm3 or from about 1.13 g/cm3 to about 1.19 g/cm3, more preferably from about 1.13 g/cm3 to about 1.18 g/cm3.
  • [0235]
    The density of the extended release matrix formulation is preferably determined by Archimedes Principle using a liquid of known density (ρ0). The extended release matrix formulation is first weighed in air and then immersed in a liquid and weighed. From these two weights, the density of the extended release matrix formulation ρ can be determined by the equation:
  • [0000]
    ρ = A A - B ρ 0
  • [0000]
    wherein ρ is the density of the extended release matrix formulation, A is the weight of the extended release matrix formulation in air, B is the weight of the extended release matrix formulation when immersed in a liquid and ρ0 is the density of the liquid at a given temperature. A suitable liquid of known density ρ0 is for example hexane.
  • [0236]
    Preferably, the density of an extended release matrix formulation is measured using a Top-loading Mettler Toledo balance Model #AB 135-S/FACT, Serial #1127430072 and a density determination kit 33360. Preferably, hexane is used as liquid of known density ρ0.
  • [0237]
    The density values throughout this document correspond to the density of the extended release matrix formulation at room temperature.
  • [0238]
    The density of the extended release matrix formulation preferably refers to the density of the uncoated formulation, for example to the density of a core tablet. In those embodiments, wherein the extended release matrix formulation is coated, for example wherein the extended release matrix formulation is subjected to a coating step d) after the curing step c), the density of the extended release matrix formulation is preferably measured prior to performing the coating step, or by removing the coating from a coated extended release matrix formulation and subsequently measuring the density of the uncoated extended release matrix formulation.
  • [0239]
    In the above described embodiments high molecular weight polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of from 2,000,000 to 15,000,000 or from 2,000,000 to 8,000,000 may be used. In particular polyethylene oxides having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of 2,000,000, 4,000,000, 7,000,000 or 8,000,000 may be used. In particular polyethylene oxides having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of 4,000,000, may be used.
  • [0240]
    In embodiments wherein the composition further comprises at least one low molecular weight polyethylene oxide is used polyethylene oxides having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of less than 1,000,000, such as polyethylene oxides having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of from 100,000 to 900,000 may be used. The addition of such low molecular weight polyethylene oxides may be used to specifically tailor the release rate such as enhance the release rate of a formulation that otherwise provides a release rate to slow for the specific purpose. In such embodiments at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of 100,000 may be used.
  • [0241]
    In certain such embodiments the composition comprises at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000 and at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of less than 1,000,000, wherein the composition comprises at least about 10% (by wt) or at least about 20% (by wt) of the polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of less than 1,000,000. In certain such embodiments the curing temperature is less than about 80 C. or even less than about 77 C.
  • [0242]
    In certain embodiments the overall content of polyethylene oxide in the composition is at least about 80% (by wt). Without wanting to be bound to any theory it is believed that high contents of polyethylene oxide provide for the tamper resistance as described herein, such as the breaking strength and the resistance to alcohol extraction. According to certain such embodiments the active agent is oxycodone hydrochloride and the composition comprises more than about 5% (by wt) of the oxycodone hydrochloride.
  • [0243]
    In certain such embodiments the content in the composition of the at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000 is at least about 80% (by wt). In certain embodiments the content in the composition of the at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000 is at least about 85% or at least about 90% (by wt). In such embodiments a polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 4,000,000 or at least 7,000,000 may be employed. In certain such embodiments the active agent is oxycodone hydrochloride or hydromorphone hydrochloride, although other active agents can also be used according to this aspect of the invention, and the composition comprises more than about 5% (by wt) oxycodone hydrochloride or hydromorphone hydrochloride.
  • [0244]
    In certain embodiments wherein the amount of drug in the composition is at least about 20% (by wt) the polyethylene oxide content may be as low as about 75% (by wt). In another embodiment, wherein the amount of drug in the composition is in the range of from about 25% (by wt) to about 35% (by wt), the polyethylene oxide content may be in the range of from about 65% (by wt) to about 75% (by wt). For example, in embodiments wherein the amount of drug in the composition is about 32% (by wt) the polyethylene oxide content may be about 67% (by wt).
  • [0245]
    In certain embodiments of the invention magnesium stearate is added during or after the curing process/curing step in order to avoid that the tablets stick together. In certain such embodiments the magnesium stearate is added at the end of the curing process/curing step before cooling the tablets or during the cooling of the tablets. Other anti-tacking agents that could be used would be talc, silica, fumed silica, colloidal silica dioxide, calcium stearate, carnauba wax, long chain fatty alcohols and waxes, such as stearic acid and stearyl alcohol, mineral oil, paraffin, micro crystalline cellulose, glycerin, propylene glycol, and polyethylene glycol. Additionally or alternatively the coating can be started at the high temperature.
  • [0246]
    In certain embodiments, wherein curing step c) is carried out in a coating pan, sticking of tablets can be avoided or sticking tablets can be separated by increasing the pan speed during the curing step or after the curing step, in the latter case for example before or during the cooling of the tablets. The pan speed is increased up to a speed where all tablets are separated or no sticking occurs.
  • [0247]
    In certain embodiments of the invention, an initial film coating or a fraction of a film coating is applied prior to performing curing step c). This film coating provides an overcoat for the extended release matrix formulations or tablets to function as an anti-tacking agent, i.e. in order to avoid that the formulations or tablets stick together. In certain such embodiments the film coating which is applied prior to the curing step is an Opadry film coating. After the curing step c), a further film coating step can be performed.
  • [0248]
    The present invention encompasses also any solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form obtainable by a process according to any process as described above.
  • [0249]
    Independently, the present invention is also directed to solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage forms.
  • [0250]
    In certain embodiments the invention is directed to solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage forms comprising an extended release matrix formulation comprising an active agent in the form of a tablet or multi particulates, wherein the tablet or the individual multi particulates can at least be flattened without breaking, characterized by a thickness of the tablet or of the individual multi particulate after the flattening which corresponds to no more than about 60% of the thickness of the tablet or the individual multi particulate before flattening, and wherein said flattened tablet or the flattened multi particulates provide an in-vitro dissolution rate, when measured in a USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C., characterized by the percent amount of active released at 0.5 hours or at 0.5 and 0.75 hours, or at 0.5, 0.75 and 1 hours, or at 0.5, 0.75, 1 and 1.5 hours or at 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5 and 2 hours of dissolution that deviates no more than about 20% points at each of said time points from the corresponding in-vitro dissolution rate of a non-flattened reference tablet or reference multi particulates.
  • [0251]
    In certain such embodiments the tablet or the individual multi particulates can at least be flattened without breaking, characterized by a thickness of the tablet or the individual multi particulate after the flattening which corresponds to no more than about 50%, or no more than about 40%, or no more than about 30%, or no more than about 20%, or no more than about 16% of the thickness of the tablet or the individual multi particulate before flattening, and wherein said flattened tablet or the flattened multi particulates provide an in-vitro dissolution rate, when measured in a USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C., characterized by the percent amount of active released at 0.5 hours or at 0.5 and 0.75 hours, or at 0.5, 0.75 and 1 hours, or at 0.5, 0.75, 1 and 1.5 hours or at 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5 and 2 hours of dissolution that deviates no more than about 20% points or no more than about 15% points at each of said time points from the corresponding in-vitro dissolution rate of a non-flattened reference tablet or reference multi particulates.
  • [0252]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation comprising an active agent in the form of a tablet or multi particulates,
  • [0253]
    wherein the tablet or the individual multi particulates can at least be flattened without breaking, characterized by a thickness of the tablet or of the individual multi particulate after the flattening which corresponds to no more than about 60% of the thickness of the tablet or the individual multi particulate before flattening, and wherein said flattened tablet or the flattened multi particulates and the non-flattened reference tablet or reference multi particulates provide an in-vitro dissolution rate, which when measured in a USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C., is between about 5 and about 40% (by wt) active agent released after 0.5 hours.
  • [0254]
    In certain such embodiments, the tablet or the individual multi particulates can at least be flattened without breaking, characterized by a thickness of the tablet or of the individual multi particulate after the flattening which corresponds to no more than about 50%, or no more than about 40%, or no more than about 30%, or no more than about 20%, or no more than about 16% of the thickness of the tablet or the individual multi particulate before flattening, and wherein said flattened tablet or the flattened multi particulates and the non-flattened reference tablet or reference multi particulates provide an in-vitro dissolution rate, which when measured in a USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C., is between about 5 and about 40% (by wt) active agent released after 0.5 hours or is between about 5 and about 30% (by wt) active agent released after 0.5 hours or is between about 5 and about 20% (by wt) active agent released after 0.5 hours or is between about 10 and about 18% (by wt) active agent released after 0.5 hours.
  • [0255]
    In certain embodiments the invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation comprising an active agent in the form of a tablet or multi particulates, wherein the tablet or the individual multi particulates can at least be flattened without breaking, characterized by a thickness of the tablet or the individual multi particulate after the flattening which corresponds to no more than about 60% of the thickness of the tablet or the individual multi particulate before flattening, and wherein the flattened or non flattened tablet or the flattened or non flattened multi particulates provide an in-vitro dissolution rate, when measured in a USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) comprising 40% ethanol at 37 C., characterized by the percent amount of active released at 0.5 hours or at 0.5 and 0.75 hours, or at 0.5, 0.75 and 1 hours, or at 0.5, 0.75, 1 and 1.5 hours or at 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5 and 2 hours of dissolution that deviates no more than about 20% points at each time point from the corresponding in-vitro dissolution rate measured in a USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C. without ethanol, using a flattened and non flattened reference tablet or flattened and non flattened reference multi particulates, respectively.
  • [0256]
    In certain such embodiments the tablet or the multi particulates can at least be flattened without breaking, characterized by a thickness of the tablet or the individual multi particulate after the flattening which corresponds to no more than about 60%, or no more than about 50%, or no more than about 40%, or no more than about 30%, or no more than about 20%, or no more than about 16% of the thickness of the tablet or the individual multi particulate before flattening, and wherein the flattened or non flattened tablet or the individual multi particulates provide an in-vitro dissolution rate, when measured in a USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) comprising 40% ethanol at 37 C., characterized by the percent amount of active released at 0.5 hours or at 0.5 and 0.75 hours, or at 0.5, 0.75 and 1 hours, or at 0.5, 0.75, 1 and 1.5 hours or at 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5 and 2 hours of dissolution that deviates no more than about 20% points or no more than about 15% points at each of said time points from the corresponding in-vitro dissolution rate measured in a USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C. without ethanol, using a flattened and a non flattened reference tablet or reference multi particulates, respectively.
  • [0257]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation comprising an active agent in the form of a tablet or multi particulates,
  • [0258]
    wherein the tablet or the individual multi particulates can at least be flattened without breaking, characterized by a thickness of the tablet or the individual multi particulate after the flattening which corresponds to no more than about 60% of the thickness of the tablet or the individual multi particulate before flattening, and wherein the flattened or non flattened tablet or the flattened or non flattened multi particulates provide an in-vitro dissolution rate, which when measured in a USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) comprising 40% or 0% ethanol at 37 C., is between about 5 and about 40% (by wt) active agent released after 0.5 hours.
  • [0259]
    In certain such embodiments, the tablet or the individual multi particulates can at least be flattened without breaking, characterized by a thickness of the tablet or the individual multi particulate after the flattening which corresponds to no more than about 50%, or no more than about 40%, or no more than about 30%, or no more than about 20%, or no more than about 16% of the thickness of the tablet or the individual multi particulate before flattening, and wherein the flattened or non flattened tablet or the flattened or non flattened multi particulates provide an in-vitro dissolution rate, which when measured in a USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) comprising 40% or 0% ethanol at 37 C., is between about 5 and about 40% (by wt) active agent released after 0.5 hours or is between about 5 and about 30% (by wt) active agent released after 0.5 hours or is between about 5 and about 20% (by wt) active agent released after 0.5 hours or is between about 10 and about 18% (by wt) active agent released after 0.5 hours.
  • [0260]
    Such dosage forms may be prepared as described above.
  • [0261]
    In certain embodiments the invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation, the extended release matrix formulation comprising a composition comprising at least:
      • (1) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000; and
      • (2) at least one active agent, preferably selected from opioid analgesics; and
        wherein the composition comprises at least about 80% (by wt) polyethylene oxide. The composition may also comprise at least about 85 or 90% (by wt) polyethylene oxide. According to certain such embodiments wherein the composition comprises at least about 80% (by wt) polyethylene oxide, the active agent is oxycodone hydrochloride or hydromorphone hydrochloride and the composition comprises more than about 5% (by wt) of the oxycodone hydrochloride or hydromorphone hydrochloride.
  • [0264]
    In certain such embodiments the composition comprises at least about 80% (by wt) polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000.
  • [0265]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation, the extended release matrix formulation comprising
  • [0000]
    a composition comprising at least:
      • (1) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000; and
      • (2) 10 mg oxycodone hydrochloride; and
  • [0268]
    wherein the composition comprises at least about 85% (by wt) polyethylene oxide.
  • [0269]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation, the extended release matrix formulation comprising
  • [0000]
    a composition comprising at least:
      • (1) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000; and
      • (2) 15 mg or 20 mg oxycodone hydrochloride; and
  • [0272]
    wherein the composition comprises at least about 80% (by wt) polyethylene oxide.
  • [0273]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation, the extended release matrix formulation comprising
  • [0000]
    a composition comprising at least:
      • (1) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000; and
      • (2) 40 mg oxycodone hydrochloride; and
  • [0276]
    wherein the composition comprises at least about 65% (by wt) polyethylene oxide.
  • [0277]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation, the extended release matrix formulation comprising
  • [0000]
    a composition comprising at least:
      • (1) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000; and
      • (2) 60 mg or 80 mg oxycodone hydrochloride; and
  • [0280]
    wherein the composition comprises at least about 60% (by wt) polyethylene oxide.
  • [0281]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation, the extended release matrix formulation comprising
  • [0000]
    a composition comprising at least:
      • (1) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000; and
      • (2) 8 mg hydromorphone hydrochloride; and
  • [0284]
    wherein the composition comprises at least about 94% (by wt) polyethylene oxide.
  • [0285]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation, the extended release matrix formulation comprising
  • [0000]
    a composition comprising at least:
      • (1) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000; and
      • (2) 12 mg hydromorphone hydrochloride; and
  • [0288]
    wherein the composition comprises at least about 92% (by wt) polyethylene oxide.
  • [0289]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation, the extended release matrix formulation comprising
  • [0000]
    a composition comprising at least:
      • (1) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000; and
      • (2) 32 mg hydromorphone hydrochloride; and
  • [0292]
    wherein the composition comprises at least about 90% (by wt) polyethylene oxide.
  • [0293]
    In certain embodiments the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation, the extended release matrix formulation comprising a composition comprising at least:
      • (1) at least one active agent, preferably selected from opioid analgesics;
      • (2) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000; and
      • (3) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of less than 1,000,000. In certain such embodiments the composition comprises at least about 80% (by wt) of polyethylene oxide. The composition may also comprise at least about 85 or 90% (by wt) polyethylene oxide. According to certain such embodiments wherein the composition comprises at least about 80% (by wt) polyethylene oxide, the active agent is oxycodone hydrochloride or hydromorphone hydrochloride and the composition comprises more than about 5% (by wt) of the oxycodone hydrochloride or the hydromorphone hydrochloride. The composition may also comprise 15 to 30% (by wt) of polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, a molecular weight of at least 1,000,000; and 65 to 80% (by wt) polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, a molecular weight of less than 1,000,000, or the composition may comprise at least about 20% (by wt) or at least about 30% (by wt) or at least about 50% (by wt) of polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, a molecular weight of at least 1,000,000.
  • [0297]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation, the extended release matrix formulation comprising
  • [0000]
    a composition comprising at least:
      • (1) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, a molecular weight of at least 800,000 or at least 900,000; and
      • (2) at least one active agent selected from opioid analgesics; and
  • [0300]
    wherein the composition comprises at least about 80% (by wt) polyethylene oxide.
  • [0301]
    In certain embodiments of the invention the extended release matrix has a density which is equal to or less than about 1.20 g/cm3. In certain such embodiments, the density of the extended release matrix formulation is equal to or less than about 1.19 g/cm3, preferably equal to or less than about 1.18 g/cm3 or equal to or less than about 1.17 g/cm3. For example, the density of the extended release matrix formulation is in the range of from about 1.10 g/cm3 to about 1.20 g/cm3, from about 1.11 g/cm3 to about 1.20 g/cm3, or from about 1.11 g/cm3 to about 1.19 g/cm3. Preferably it is in the range of from about 1.12 g/cm3 to about 1.19 g/cm3 or from about 1.13 g/cm3 to about 1.19 g/cm3, more preferably from about 1.13 g/cm3 to about 1.18 g/cm3. Preferably, the density is determined by Archimedes principle, as described above.
  • [0302]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation, the extended release matrix formulation comprising
  • [0000]
    a composition comprising at least:
      • (1) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000; and
      • (2) at least one active agent; and
  • [0305]
    wherein the extended release matrix formulation when subjected to an indentation test has a cracking force of at least about 110 N.
  • [0306]
    In certain embodiments of the invention the extended release matrix formulation has a cracking force of at least about 110 N, preferably of at least about 120 N, at least about 130 N or at least about 140 N, more preferably of at least about 150 N, at least about 160 N or at least about 170 N, most preferably of at least about 180 N, at least about 190 N or at least about 200 N.
  • [0307]
    In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation, the extended release matrix formulation comprising
  • [0000]
    a composition comprising at least:
      • (1) at least one polyethylene oxide having, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000; and
      • (2) at least one active agent; and
  • [0310]
    wherein the extended release matrix formulation when subjected to an indentation test has a penetration depth to crack distance of at least about 1.0 mm.
  • [0311]
    In certain embodiments of the invention the extended release matrix formulation has a penetration depth to crack distance of at least about 1.0 mm or at least about 1.2 mm, preferably of at least about 1.4 mm, at least about 1.5 mm or at least about 1.6 mm, more preferably of at least about 1.8 mm, at least about 1.9 mm or at least about 2.0 mm, most preferably of at least about 2.2 mm, at least about 2.4 mm or at least about 2.6 mm.
  • [0312]
    In certain such embodiments of the invention the extended release matrix formulation has a cracking force of at least about 110 N, preferably of at least about 120 N, at least about 130 N or at least about 140 N, more preferably of at least about 150 N, at least about 160 N or at least about 170 N, most preferably of at least about 180 N, at least about 190 N or at least about 200 N, and/or a penetration depth to crack distance of at least about 1.0 mm or at least about 1.2 mm, preferably of at least about 1.4 mm, at least about 1.5 mm or at least about 1.6 mm, more preferably of at least about 1.8 mm, at least about 1.9 mm or at least about 2.0 mm, most preferably of at least about 2.2 mm, at least about 2.4 mm or at least about 2.6 mm. A combination of any of the aforementioned values of cracking force and penetration depth to crack distance is included in the scope of the present invention.
  • [0313]
    In certain such embodiments the extended release matrix formulation when subjected to an indentation test resists a work of at least about 0.06 J or at least about 0.08 J, preferably of at least about 0.09 J, at least about 0.11 J or at least about 0.13 J, more preferably of at least about 0.15 J, at least about 0.17 J or at least about 0.19 J, most preferably of at least about 0.21 J, at least about 0.23 J or at least about 0.25 J, without cracking.
  • [0314]
    The parameters cracking force, penetration depth to crack distance and work are determined in an indentation test as described above, using a Texture Analyzer such as the TA-XT2 Texture Analyzer (Texture Technologies Corp., 18 Fairview Road, Scarsdale, N.Y. 10583). The cracking force and/or penetration depth to crack distance can be determined using an uncoated or a coated extended release matrix formulation. Preferably, the cracking force and/or penetration depth to crack distance are determined on the uncoated extended release matrix formulation. Without wanting to be bound by any theory, it is believed that a coating, such as the coating applied in step d) of the manufacturing process of the solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form as described above, does not significantly contribute to the observed cracking force and/or penetration depth to crack distance. Therefore, the cracking force and/or penetration depth to crack distance determined for a specific coated extended release matrix formulation are not expected to vary substantially from the values determined for the corresponding uncoated extended release matrix formulation.
  • [0315]
    In certain embodiments the extended release matrix formulation is in the form of a tablet or multi particulates, and the tablet or the individual multi particulates can at least be flattened without breaking, characterized by a thickness of the tablet or of the individual multi particulate after the flattening which corresponds to no more than about 60% of the thickness of the tablet or the individual multi particulate before flattening. Preferably, the tablet or the individual multi particulates can at least be flattened without breaking, characterized by a thickness of the tablet or the individual multi particulate after the flattening which corresponds to no more than about 50%, or no more than about 40%, or no more than about 30%, or no more than about 20%, or no more than about 16% of the thickness of the tablet or the individual multi particulate before flattening.
  • [0316]
    Preferably, the flattening of the tablets or the individual multi particulates is performed with a bench press, such as a carver style bench press, or with a hammer, as described above.
  • [0317]
    In certain such embodiments the extended release matrix formulation is in the form of a tablet or multi particulates, and the tablet or the individual multi particulates can at least be flattened without breaking, characterized by a thickness of the tablet or of the individual multi particulate after the flattening which corresponds to no more than about 60% of the thickness of the tablet or the individual multi particulate before flattening, and wherein said flattened tablet or the flattened multi particulates provide an in-vitro dissolution rate, when measured in a USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C., characterized by the percent amount of active released at 0.5 hours or at 0.5 and 0.75 hours, or at 0.5, 0.75 and 1 hours, or at 0.5, 0.75, 1 and 1.5 hours or at 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5 and 2 hours of dissolution that deviates no more than about 20% points at each of said time points from the corresponding in-vitro dissolution rate of a non-flattened reference tablet or reference multi particulates. Preferably, the tablet or the individual multi particulates can at least be flattened without breaking, characterized by a thickness of the tablet or the individual multi particulate after the flattening which corresponds to no more than about 50%, or no more than about 40%, or no more than about 30%, or no more than about 20%, or no more than about 16% of the thickness of the tablet or the individual multi particulate before flattening, and wherein said flattened tablet or the flattened multi particulates provide an in-vitro dissolution rate, when measured in a USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C., characterized by the percent amount of active released at 0.5 hours or at 0.5 and 0.75 hours, or at 0.5, 0.75 and 1 hours, or at 0.5, 0.75, 1 and 1.5 hours or at 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5 and 2 hours of dissolution that deviates no more than about 20% points or no more than about 15% points at each of said time points from the corresponding in-vitro dissolution rate of a non-flattened reference tablet or reference multi particulates.
  • [0318]
    In certain embodiments the invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form comprising an extended release matrix formulation, wherein the extended release matrix formulation is in the form of a tablet or multi particulates, and the tablet or the individual multi particulates can at least be flattened without breaking, characterized by a thickness of the tablet or of the individual multi particulate after the flattening which corresponds to no more than about 60% of the thickness of the tablet or the individual multi particulate before flattening, and wherein the flattened or non flattened tablet or the flattened or non flattened multi particulates provide an in-vitro dissolution rate, when measured in a USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) comprising 40% ethanol at 37 C., characterized by the percent amount of active released at 0.5 hours or at 0.5 and 0.75 hours, or at 0.5, 0.75 and 1 hours, or at 0.5, 0.75, 1 and 1.5 hours or at 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5 and 2 hours of dissolution that deviates no more than about 20% points at each time points from the corresponding in-vitro dissolution rate measured in a USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C. without ethanol, using a flattened and non flattened reference tablet or flattened and non flattened reference multi particulates, respectively. Preferably, the tablet or the multi particulates can at least be flattened without breaking, characterized by a thickness of the tablet or the individual multi particulate after the flattening which corresponds to no more than about 60%, or no more than about 50%, or no more than about 40%, or no more than about 30%, or no more than about 20%, or no more than about 16% of the thickness of the tablet or the individual multi particulate before flattening, and wherein the flattened or non flattened tablet or the individual multi particulates provide an in-vitro dissolution rate, when measured in a USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) comprising 40% ethanol at 37 C., characterized by the percent amount of active released at 0.5 hours or at 0.5 and 0.75 hours, or at 0.5, 0.75 and 1 hours, or at 0.5, 0.75, 1 and 1.5 hours or at 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5 and 2 hours of dissolution that deviates no more than about 20% points or no more than about 15% points at each of said time points from the corresponding in-vitro dissolution rate measured in a USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C. without ethanol, using a flattened and a non flattened reference tablet or reference multi particulates, respectively.
  • [0319]
    In certain such embodiments the extended release matrix formulation, when subjected to a maximum force of about 196 N or about 439 N in a tablet hardness test, does not break.
  • [0320]
    Preferably, the tablet hardness test to determine the breaking strength of extended release matrix formulations is performed in a Schleuniger Apparatus as described above. For example, the breaking strength is determined using a Schleuniger 2E/106 Apparatus and applying a force of a maximum of about 196 N, or a Schleuniger Model 6D Apparatus and applying a force of a maximum of about 439 N.
  • [0321]
    It has also been observed that formulations of the present invention are storage stable, wherein the extended release matrix formulation after having been stored at 25 C. and 60% relative humidity (RH) or 40 C. and 75% relative humidity (RH) for at least 1 month, more preferably for at least 2 months, for at least 3 months or for at least 6 months, provides a dissolution rate, when measured in a USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C., characterized by the percent amount of active released at 1 hours or at 1 and 2 hours, or at 1 and 4 hours, or at 1, 2 and 4 hours, or at 1, 4 and 12 hours, or at 1, 2, 4 and 8 hours or at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 hours of dissolution that deviates no more than about 15% points, preferably no more than about 12% points or no more than about 10% points, more preferably no more than about 8% points or no more than about 6% points, most preferably no more than about 5% points at each of said time points from the corresponding in-vitro dissolution rate of a reference formulation prior to storage. Preferably, the extended release matrix formulation is stored in count bottles, such as 100 count bottles. Any combination of the aforementioned storage times, dissolution time points and deviation limits lies within the scope of the present invention.
  • [0322]
    According to a further storage stability aspect the extended release matrix formulation after having been stored at 25 C. and 60% relative humidity (RH) or at 40 C. and 75% relative humidity (RH) for at least 1 month, more preferably for at least 2 months, for at least 3 months or for at least 6 months, contains an amount of the at least one active agent in % (by wt) relative to the label claim of the active agent for the extended release matrix formulation that deviates no more than about 10% points, preferably no more than about 8% points or no more than about 6% points, more preferably no more than about 5% points or no more than about 4% points or no more than about 3% points from the corresponding amount of active agent in % (by wt) relative to the label claim of the active agent for the extended release matrix formulation of a reference formulation prior to storage. Preferably, the extended release matrix formulation is stored in count bottles, such as 100 count bottles. Any combination of the aforementioned storage times and deviation limits lies within the scope of the present invention.
  • [0323]
    According to certain such embodiments the active agent is oxycodone hydrochloride.
  • [0324]
    Preferably, the amount of the at least one active agent in % (by wt) relative to the label claim of the active agent for the extended release matrix formulation is determined by extracting the at least one active agent from the extended release matrix formulation and subsequent analysis using high performance liquid chromatography. In certain embodiments, wherein the at least one active agent is oxycodone hydrochloride, preferably the amount of oxycodone hydrochloride in % (by wt) relative to the label claim of oxycodone hydrochloride for the extended release matrix formulation is determined by extracting the oxycodone hydrochloride from the extended release matrix formulation with a 1:2 mixture of acetonitrile and simulated gastric fluid without enzyme (SGF) under constant magnetic stirring until the extended release matrix formulation is completely dispersed or for overnight and subsequent analysis using high performance liquid chromatography, preferably reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. In certain such embodiments, wherein the extended release matrix formulation is in the form of tablets, preferably the amount of oxycodone hydrochloride in % (by wt) relative to the label claim of oxycodone hydrochloride for the tablets is determined by extracting oxycodone hydrochloride from two sets of ten tablets each with 900 mL of a 1:2 mixture of acetonitrile and simulated gastric fluid without enzyme (SGF) under constant magnetic stirring until the tablets are completely dispersed or for overnight and subsequent analysis using high performance liquid chromatography, preferably reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Preferably, the assay results are mean values on two measurements.
  • [0325]
    In certain embodiments the invention is directed to a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form wherein the dosage form provides a dissolution rate, which when measured in a USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C., is between 12.5 and 55% (by wt) active agent released after 1 hour, between 25 and 65% (by wt) active agent released after 2 hours, between 45 and 85% (by wt) active agent released after 4 hours and between 55 and 95% (by wt) active agent released after 6 hours, and optionally between 75 and 100% (by wt) active agent released after 8 hours. Preferably, the dosage form provides a dissolution rate, which when measured in a USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C., between 15 and 45% (by wt) active released after 1 hour, is between 30 and 60% (by wt) active agent released after 2 hours, between 50 and 80% (by wt) active agent released after 4 hours and between 60 and 90% (by wt) active agent released after 6 hours and optionally between 80 and 100% (by wt) active agent released after 8 hours. More preferably, the dosage form provides a dissolution rate, which when measured in a USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C., is between 17.5 and 35% (by wt) active agent released after 1 hour, between 35 and 55% (by wt) active agent released after 2 hours, between 55 and 75% (by wt) active agent released after 4 hours and between 65 and 85% (by wt) active agent released after 6 hours and optionally between 85 and 100% (by wt) active agent released after 8 hours.
  • [0326]
    In certain such embodiments the active agent is oxycodone hydrochloride or hydromorphone hydrochloride.
  • [0327]
    Such dosage forms may be prepared by the process as described herein.
  • [0328]
    In embodiments as described above the tablet may be formed by direct compression of the composition and cured by at least subjecting said tablet to a temperature of at least about 60 C., at least about 62 C., at least about 68 C., at least about 70 C., at least about 72 C. or at least about 75 C. for a time period of at least about 1 minute, at least about 5 minutes or at least about 15 minutes.
  • [0329]
    In certain embodiments of the invention the tablet as described above may be over coated with a polyethylene oxide powder layer by applying to the cured or uncured tablet a powder layer of polyethylene oxide surrounding the core and cure the powder layered tablet as described above. Such an outer polyethylene oxide layer provides a lag time before the release of the active agent starts and/or a slower overall release rate.
  • [0330]
    In certain embodiments of the invention a stacked bi or multi layered tablet is manufactured, wherein at least one of the layers contains an extended release formulation as described above and at least one of the other layers contains an immediate release formulation of the active agent contained by the extended release formulation or a second different active agent. In certain such embodiments the tablet is a bi layered tablet with on extended release formulation layer as described herein and an immediate release formulation layer. In certain such embodiments, in particular the bi layered tablets, opioid analgesics are contained by the extended release layer and further non opioid analgesics are contained by the immediate release layer. Non opioid analgesics may be non steroidal anti inflammatory agents but also non opioid analgesics such as acetaminophen. Acetaminophen can e.g. be used in combination with hydrocodone as opioid analgesic. Such tablets can be prepared by specific tablet compression techniques which allow the compression of at least two compositions to form tablets with at least two distinct stacked layers each comprising one of the at least two compositions. For example, such tablets can be manufactured in a tablet press by filling the compression tool with the first composition and compressing said first composition and subsequently filling on top of the compressed first composition the second composition and subsequently compressing the two compositions to form the final layered tablet. The immediate release composition may be any composition as known in the art.
  • [0331]
    The invention also encompasses the use of high molecular weight polyethylene oxide that has, based on rheological measurements, an approximate molecular weight of at least 1,000,000, as matrix forming material in the manufacture of a solid extended release oral dosage form comprising an active selected from opioids for imparting to the solid extended release oral dosage form resistance to alcohol extraction. The use may be accomplished as described herein with respect to the described process or the described formulations or in any other way as conventional in the art.
  • [0332]
    It has been observed that the formulations of the present invention comprising a high molecular weight polyethylene oxide can be flattened to a thickness of between about 15 and about 18% of the non flattened thickness and that the flat tablet resumes in part or substantially resumes its initial non flattened shape during dissolution, neglecting the swelling that also takes place during dissolution, i.e. the thickness of the tablet increases and the diameter decreases considerably during dissolution. Without wanting to be bound to any theory it is believed that the high molecular weight polyethylene oxide has a form memory and the ability to restore the initial form after deformation, e.g. after flattening, in an environment that allows the restoration, such as an aqueous environment used in dissolution tests. This ability is believed to contribute to the tamper resistance, in particular the alcohol resistance of the dosage forms of the present invention.
  • [0333]
    The invention also encompasses the method of treatment wherein a dosage form is administered for treatment of a disease or certain condition of a patient that requires treatment in particular pain and the use of a dosage form according to the invention for the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of a disease or certain condition of a patient that requires treatment in particular pain.
  • [0334]
    In one aspect of the present invention, a twice-a-day solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form is provided which provides a mean tmax at about 2 to about 6 hours or at about 2.5 to about 5.5 hours or at about 2.5 to about 5 hours after administration at steady state or of a single dose to human subjects. The dosage form may comprises oxycodone or a salt thereof or hydromorphone or a salt thereof.
  • [0335]
    In one aspect of the present invention, a once-a-day solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form is provided which provides a mean tmax at about 3 to about 10 hours or at about 4 to about 9 hours or at about 5 to about 8 hours after administration at steady state or of a single dose to human subjects. The dosage form may comprises oxycodone or a salt thereof or hydromorphone or a salt thereof.
  • [0336]
    In a further aspect of the present invention, a twice-a-day solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form is provided, wherein the dosage form comprises oxycodone or a salt thereof in an amount of from about 10 mg to about 160 mg and wherein the dosage form provides a mean maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of oxycodone up to about 240 ng/mL or from about 6 ng/mL to about 240 ng/mL after administration at steady state or of a single dose to human subjects.
  • [0337]
    In a further aspect of the present invention, a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form is provided, wherein the dosage form comprises oxycodone or a salt thereof in an amount of from about 10 mg to about 40 mg and wherein the dosage form provides a mean maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of oxycodone from about 6 ng/mL to about 60 ng/mL after administration at steady state or of a single dose to human subjects.
  • [0338]
    In a further aspect of the invention a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form is provided that is bioequivalent to the commercial product OxyContin.
  • [0339]
    In a further aspect of the invention a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form is provided that is bioequivalent to the commercial product Palladone as sold in the United States in 2005.
  • [0340]
    In a further aspect of the invention, a solid oral extended release pharmaceutical dosage form is provided, wherein the active agent is oxycodone hydrochloride and
  • [0000]
    wherein a dosage form comprising 10 mg of oxycodone hydrochloride when tested in a comparative clinical study is bioequivalent to a reference tablet containing 10 mg of oxycodone hydrochloride in a matrix formulation containing:
      • a) Oxycodone hydrochloride: 10.0 mg/tablet
      • b) Lactose (spray-dried): 69.25 mg/tablet
      • c) Povidone: 5.0 mg/tablet
      • d) Eudragit RS 30D (solids): 10.0 mg/tablet
      • e) Triacetin: 2.0 mg/tablet
      • f) Stearyl alcohol: 25.0 mg/tablet
      • g) Talc: 2.5 mg/tablet
      • h) Magnesium Stearate: 1.25 mg/tablet;
        and wherein the reference tablet is prepared by the following steps:
    • 1. Eudragit RS 30D and Triacetin are combined while passing through a 60 mesh screen, and mixed under low shear for approximately 5 minutes or until a uniform dispersion is observed.
    • 2. Oxycodone HCl, lactose, and povidone are placed into a fluid bed granulator/dryer (FBD) bowl, and the suspension sprayed onto the powder in the fluid bed.
    • 3. After spraying, the granulation is passed through a #12 screen if necessary to reduce lumps.
    • 4. The dry granulation is placed in a mixer.
    • 5. In the meantime, the required amount of stearyl alcohol is melted at a temperature of approximately 70 C.
    • 6. The melted stearyl alcohol is incorporated into the granulation while mixing.
    • 7. The waxed granulation is transferred to a fluid bed granulator/dryer or trays and allowed to cool to room temperature or below.
    • 8. The cooled granulation is then passed through a #12 screen.
    • 9. The waxed granulation is placed in a mixer/blender and lubricated with the required amounts of talc and magnesium stearate for approximately 3 minutes.
    • 10. The granulate is compressed into 125 mg tablets on a suitable tabletting machine.
  • [0359]
    Pharmacokinetic parameters such as Cmax and tmax, AUCt, AUCinf, etc. describing the blood plasma curve can be obtained in clinical trials, first by single-dose administration of the active agent, e.g. oxycodone to a number of test persons, such as healthy human subjects. The blood plasma values of the individual test persons are then averaged, e.g. a mean AUC, Cmax and tmax value is obtained. In the context of the present invention, pharmacokinetic parameters such as AUC, Cmax and tmax refer to mean values. Further, in the context of the present invention, in vivo parameters such as values for AUC, Cmax, tmax, or analgesic efficacy refer to parameters or values obtained after administration at steady state or of a single dose to human patients.
  • [0360]
    The Cmax value indicates the maximum blood plasma concentration of the active agent. The tmax value indicates the time point at which the Cmax value is reached. In other words, tmax is the time point of the maximum observed plasma concentration.
  • [0361]
    The AUC (Area Under the Curve) value corresponds to the area of the concentration curve. The AUC value is proportional to the amount of active agent absorbed into the blood circulation in total and is hence a measure for the bioavailability.
  • [0362]
    The AUCt value corresponds to the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from the time of administration to the last measurable plasma concentration and is calculated by the linear up/log down trapezoidal rule.
  • [0363]
    AUCinf is the area under the plasma concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity and is calculated using the formula:
  • [0000]
    AUC inf = AUC t + C t λ Z
  • [0000]
    where Ct is the last measurable plasma concentration and λZ is the apparent terminal phase rate constant.
  • [0364]
    λZ is the apparent terminal phase rate constant, where λZ is the magnitude of the slope of the linear regression of the log concentration versus time profile during the terminal phase.
  • [0365]
    t1/2Z is the apparent plasma terminal phase half-life and is commonly determined as t1/2Z=(ln 2)/λZ.
  • [0366]
    The lag time tlag is estimated as the timepoint immediately prior to the first measurable plasma concentration value.
  • [0367]
    The term healthy human subject refers to a male or female with average values as regards height, weight and physiological parameters, such as blood pressure, etc. Healthy human subjects for the purposes of the present invention are selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria which are based on and in accordance with recommendations of the International Conference for Harmonization of Clinical Trials (ICH).
  • [0368]
    Thus, inclusion criteria comprise males and females aged between 18 to 50 years, inclusive, a body weight ranging from 50 to 100 kg (110 to 220 lbs) and a Body Mass Index (BMI)≧18 and ≦34 (kg/m2), that subjects are healthy and free of significant abnormal findings as determined by medical history, physical examination, vital signs, and electrocardiogram, that females of child-bearing potential must be using an adequate and reliable method of contraception, such as a barrier with additional spermicide foam or jelly, an intra-uterine device, hormonal contraception (hormonal contraceptives alone are not acceptable), that females who are postmenopausal must have been postmenopausal ≧1 year and have elevated serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and that subjects are willing to eat all the food supplied during the study.
  • [0369]
    A further inclusion criterium may be that subjects will refrain from strenuous exercise during the entire study and that they will not begin a new exercise program nor participate in any unusually strenuous physical exertion.
  • [0370]
    Exclusion criteria comprise that females are pregnant (positive beta human chorionic gonadotropin test) or lactating, any history of or current drug or alcohol abuse for five years, a history of or any current conditions that might interfere with drug absorption, distribution, metabolism or excretion, use of an opioid-containing medication in the past thirty (30) days, a history of known sensitivity to oxycodone, naltrexone, or related compounds, any history of frequent nausea or emesis regardless of etiology, any history of seizures or head trauma with current sequelae, participation in a clinical drug study during the thirty (30) days preceding the initial dose in this study, any significant illness during the thirty (30) days preceding the initial dose in this study, use of any medication including thyroid hormone replacement therapy (hormonal contraception is allowed), vitamins, herbal, and/or mineral supplements, during the 7 days preceding the initial dose, refusal to abstain from food for 10 hours preceding and 4 hours following administration or for 4 hours following administration of the study drugs and to abstain from caffeine or xanthine entirely during each confinement, consumption of alcoholic beverages within forty-eight (48) hours of initial study drug administration (Day 1) or anytime following initial study drug administration, history of smoking or use of nicotine products within 45 days of study drug administration or a positive urine cotinine test, blood or blood products donated within 30 days prior to administration of the study drugs or anytime during the study, except as required by the clinical study protocol, positive results for urine drug screen, alcohol screen at check-in of each period, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody HBsAb (unless immunized), hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV), a positive Naloxone HCl challenge test, presence of Gilbert's Syndrome or any known hepatobiliary abnormalities and that the Investigator believes the subject to be unsuitable for reason(s) not specifically stated above.
  • [0371]
    Subjects meeting all the inclusion criteria and none of the exclusion criteria will be randomized into the study.
  • [0372]
    The enrolled population is the group of subjects who provide informed consent.
  • [0373]
    The randomized safety population is the group of subjects who are randomized, receive study drug, and have at least one post dose safety assessment.
  • [0374]
    The full analysis population for PK metrics will be the group of subjects who are randomized, receive study drug, and have at least one valid PK metric. Subjects experiencing emesis within 12 hours after dosing might be included based on visual inspection of the PK profiles prior to database lock. Subjects and profiles/metrics excluded from the analysis set will be documented in the Statistical Analysis Plan.
  • [0375]
    For the Naloxone HCl challenge test, vital signs and pulse oximetry (SPO2) are obtained prior to the Naloxone HCl challenge test. The Naloxone HCl challenge may be administered intravenously or subcutaneously. For the intravenous route, the needle or cannula should remain in the arm during administration. 0.2 mg of Naloxone HCl (0.5 mL) are administered by intravenous injection. The subject is observed for 30 seconds for evidence of withdrawal signs or symptoms. Then 0.6 mg of Naloxone HCl (1.5 mL) are administered by intravenous injection. The subject is observed for 20 minutes for signs and symptoms of withdrawal. For the subcutaneous route, 0.8 mg of Naloxone HCl (2.0 mL) are administered and the subject is observed for 20 minutes for signs and symptoms of withdrawal. Following the 20-minute observation, post-Naloxone HCl challenge test vital signs and SPO2 are obtained.
  • [0376]
    Vital signs include systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate, and oral temperature.
  • [0377]
    For the How Do You Feel? Inquiry, subjects will be asked a non-leading How Do You Feel? question such as Have there been any changes in your health status since screening/since you were last asked? at each vital sign measurement. Subject's response will be assessed to determine whether an adverse event is to be reported. Subjects will also be encouraged to voluntarily report adverse events occurring at any other time during the study.
  • [0378]
    Each subject receiving a fed treatment will consume a standard high-fat content meal in accordance with the Guidance for Industry: Food-Effect Bioavailability and Fed Bioequivalence Studies (US Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, December 2002). The meal will be provided 30 minutes before dosing and will be eaten at a steady rate over a 25-minute period so that it is completed by 5 minutes before dosing.
  • [0379]
    Clinical laboratory evaluations performed in the course of clinical studies include biochemistry (fasted at least 10 hours), hematology, serology, urinalysis, screen for drugs of abuse, and further tests.
  • [0380]
    Biochemistry evaluations (fasted at least 10 hours) include determination of albumin, Alkaline Phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (alanine transaminase, ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (aspartate transaminase, AST), calcium, chloride, creatinine, glucose, inorganic phosphate, potassium, sodium, total bilirubin, total protein, urea, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), direct bilirubin and CO2.
  • [0381]
    Hematology evaluations include determination of hematocrit, hemoglobin, platelet count, red blood cell count, white blood cell count, white blood cell differential (% and absolute): basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils.
  • [0382]
    Serology evaluations include determination of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) and hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV).
  • [0383]
    Urinalysis evaluations include determination of color, appearance, pH, glucose, ketones, urobilinogen, nitrite, occult blood, protein, leukocyte esterase, microscopic and macroscopic evaluation, specific gravity.
  • [0384]
    Screen for drugs of abuse includes urin screen with respect to opiates, amphetamines, cannabinoids, benzodiazepines, cocaine, cotinine, barbiturates, phencyclidine, methadone and propoxyphene and alcohol tests, such as blood alcohol and breathalyzer test.
  • [0385]
    Further tests for females only include serum pregnancy test, urine pregnancy test and serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) test (for self reported postmenopausal females only).
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • [0386]
    The present invention will now be more fully described with reference to the accompanying examples. It should be understood, however, that the following description is illustrative only and should not be taken in any way as a restriction of the invention.
  • Example 1
  • [0387]
    In Example 1 a 200 mg tablet including 10 mg of oxycodone HCl was prepared using high molecular weight polyethylene oxide in combination with hydroxypropyl cellulose.
  • Composition:
  • [0388]
  • [0000]
    Ingredient mg/unit %
    Oxycodone HCl 10 5
    Polyethylene Oxide 160 80
    (MW: approximately
    4,000,000;
    Polyox  WSR-301)
    Hydroxypropyl 30 15
    Cellulose
    (Klucel  HXF)
    Total 200 100
  • Process of Manufacture:
  • [0389]
    The processing steps to manufacture tablets were as follows:
    • 1. Oxycodone HCl, Polyethylene Oxide and hydroxypropyl cellulose was dry mixed in a low/high shear Black & Decker Handy Chopper dual blade mixer with a 1.5 cup capacity.
    • 2. Step 1 blend was compressed to target weight on a single station tablet Manesty Type F 3 press
    • 3. Step 2 tablets were spread onto a tray and placed in a Hotpack model 435304 oven at 70 C. for approximately 14.5 hours to cure the tablets.
  • [0393]
    In vitro testing including testing tamper resistance (hammer and breaking strength test) and resistance to alcohol extraction was performed as follows.
  • [0394]
    The tablets were tested in vitro using USP Apparatus 2 (paddle) at 50 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C., using a Perkin Elmer UV/VIS Spectrometer Lambda 20, UV at 230 nM. The results are presented in Table 1.1.
  • [0395]
    Uncured tablets, cured tablets and tampered, i.e. flattened, cured tablets were tested. The cured tablets were flattened with a hammer using 7 manually conducted hammer strikes to impart physical tampering. The tablet dimensions before and after the flattening and the dissolution profiles were evaluated on separate samples. The results are presented in Table 1.1.
  • [0396]
    As a further tamper resistance test, the cured tablets were subjected to a breaking strength test applying a force of a maximum of 196 Newton using a Schleuniger 2E/106 Apparatus to evaluate the resistance to breaking. The results are also presented in Table 1.1.
  • [0397]
    In addition, cured tablets were tested in vitro using ethanol/SGF media at ethanol concentrations of 0%, 20% and 40% to evaluate alcohol extractability. Testing was performed using USP Apparatus 2 (paddle) at 50 rpm in 500 ml of media at 37 C., using a Perkin Elmer UV/VIS Spectrometer Lambda 20, UV at 220 nM. Sample time points include 0.5 and 1 hour. The results are also presented in Table 1.2.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 1.1
    Cured
    Uncured Flattened by 7
    whole Whole hammer strikes
    Tablet Thickness (mm) 4.521    4.391 2.232
    Dimensions Diameter (mm)    7.561 10.272
    Breaking 196+3
    strength (N)
    Diameter (mm)    7.331
    post breaking
    strength test
    Dissolution 0.5 hr 13 34 33
    (% Released)   1 hr 18 46 45
    (n = 3 tabs   2 hr 28 63 62
    per vessel)   4 hr 43 81 83
      8 hr 65 86 87
     17 hr 85 86 87
    1n = median of 3 measurements
    2n = median of 5 measurements
    3196+ means that subjected to the maximum force of 196 Newton the tablets did not break, n = median of 3 measurements
  • [0000]
    TABLE 1.2
    Dissolution
    (% Released)
    (n = 2 tabs per vessel)
    0% 20% 40%
    Ethanol Ethanol Ethanol
    Concentration Concentration Concentration
    in SGF in SGF in SGF
    Time uncured cured uncured cured uncured cured
    0.5 13 37 13 32 11 33
    1 22 50 21 46 22 43
  • Example 2
  • [0398]
    In Example 2 three different 100 mg tablets including 10 and 20 mg of Oxycodone HCl were prepared using high molecular weight polyethylene oxide and optionally hydroxypropyl cellulose.
  • Compositions:
  • [0399]
  • [0000]
    Example 2.1 Example 2.2 Example 2.3
    Ingredient mg/unit mg/unit mg/unit
    Oxycodone HCl 10 20 10
    Polyethylene Oxide 90 80 85
    (MW: approximately
    4,000,000;
    Polyox  WSR301)
    Hydroxypropyl 0 0 5
    Cellulose
    (Klucel  HXF)
    Total 100 100 100
  • Process of Manufacture:
  • [0400]
    The processing steps to manufacture tablets were as follows:
    • 1. Oxycodone HCl, Polyethylene Oxide and Hydroxypropyl Cellulose were dry mixed in a low/high shear Black & Decker Handy Chopper dual blade mixer with a 1.5 cup capacity.
    • 2. Step 1 blend was compressed to target weight on a single station tablet Manesty Type F 3 press.
    • 3. Step 2 tablets were spread onto a tray placed in a Hotpack model 435304 oven at 70-75 C. for approximately 6 to 9 hours to cure the tablets.
  • [0404]
    In vitro testing including testing for tamper resistance (bench press and breaking strength test) was performed as follows.
  • [0405]
    The cured tablets were tested in vitro using USP Apparatus 2 (paddle) at 50 rpm in 500 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C., using a Perkin Elmer UV/VIS Spectrometer Lambda 20, UV at 220 nM. Cured tablets and cured flattened tablets were tested. The tablets were flattened using 2500 psi with a Carver style bench press to impart physical tampering. The results are presented in Table 2.
  • [0406]
    As a further tamper resistance test, the cured tablets were subjected to a breaking strength test applying a force of a maximum of 196 Newton using a Schleuniger 2E/106 Apparatus to evaluate the resistance to breaking. The results are presented in Table 2.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 2
    Example 2.1 Example 2.2 Example 2.3
    Flattened Flattened Flattened
    by by by
    Whole bench Whole bench Whole bench
    (n = 6) press (n = 2) press (n = 5) press
    Tablet Thickness    3.36 0.58    3.14 0.84    3.48 0.49
    Dimensions (mm)
    Diameter    6.48 12.80    6.58 13.44    6.46 12.86
    (mm)
    Thickness 17.3 26.8 14.0
    (%)
    Breaking 196+1 n/a 196+1 n/a 196+1 n/a
    strength
    (N)
    Dissolution 0.5 hr 34 46 42 50 40 56
    (%   1 hr 50 62 57 71 55 72
    Released)   2 hr 72 78 78 91 77 89
    (n = 1)   4 hr 81 82 95 93 93 100
      8 hr 82 82 95 93 94 100
    12 hr 83 82 96 94 95 101
    1196+ means that subjected to the maximum force of 196 Newton the tablets did not break
  • Example 3
  • [0407]
    In Example 3a 200 mg tablet prepared including 10 mg oxycodone HCl and high molecular weight polyethylene oxide were prepared.
  • Composition:
  • [0408]
  • [0000]
    Ingredient mg/unit %
    Oxycodone HCl 10 5
    Polyethylene Oxide 188 94
    (MW: approximately
    4,000,000;
    Polyox  WSR301)
    Magnesium Stearate 2 1
    Total 200 100
  • Process of Manufacture:
  • [0409]
    The processing steps to manufacture tablets were as follows:
    • 1. Oxycodone HCl, Polyethylene Oxide and Magnesium Stearate were dry mixed in a low/high shear Black & Decker Handy Chopper dual blade mixer with a 1.5 cup capacity.
    • 2. Step 1 blend was compressed to target weight on a single station tablet Manesty Type F 3 press.
    • 3. Step 2 tablets were placed onto a tray placed in a Hotpack model 435304 oven at 70 C. for 1 to 14 hours to cure the tablets.
  • [0413]
    In vitro testing including testing for tamper resistance (breaking strength test) was performed as follows:
  • [0414]
    The tablets were tested in vitro using USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C., using a Perkin Elmer UV/VIS Spectrometer Lambda 20 USP Apparatus, UV at 220 nM, after having been subjected to curing for 2, 3, 4, 8, and 14 hours. Tablet dimensions of the uncured and cured tablets and dissolution results are presented in Table 3.
  • [0415]
    As a further tamper resistance test, the cured and uncured tablets were subjected to a breaking strength test applying a force of a maximum of 196 Newton using a Schleuniger 2E/106 Apparatus to evaluate the resistance to breaking. The results are presented in Table 3.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 3
    Un- Cure Time (hours)
    Cured2 11 21 41 81 142
    Tablet Weight 208 208 209  209  208  210 
    Dimensions (mg)
    Thickness 4.74    5.17    5.25    5.17    5.17    4.85
    (mm)
    Diameter 7.93    7.85    7.80    7.75    7.69    7.64
    (mm)
    Breaking 176  196+3 196+3 196+3 196+3 196+3
    strength (N)
    Dissolution 0.5 hr Not Not 16 11 15 33
    (%   1 hr tested tested 23 18 23 50
    Released)   2 hr 34 28 36 69
    (n = 2)   4 hr 54 45 58 87
      8 hr 81 69 83 93
     12 hr 96 83 92 94
    1Tablet dimensions n = 4
    2Tablet dimensions n = 10
    3196+ means that subjected to the maximum force of 196 Newton the tablets did not break.
  • Example 4
  • [0416]
    In Example 4 six different 100 mg tablets (Examples 4.1 to 4.6) including 10 mg of oxycodone HCl are prepared varying the amount and molecular weight of the used polyethylene oxides.
  • Compositions:
  • [0417]
  • [0000]
    4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6
    mg/ mg/ mg/ mg/ mg/ mg/
    Ingredient unit unit unit unit unit unit
    Oxycodone HCl 10 10 10 10 10 10
    Polyethylene Oxide 89.5 79.5 69.5 89.0 0 0
    (MW: approximately
    4,000,000;
    Polyox  WSR 301)
    Polyethylene Oxide 0 10 20 0 0 0
    (MW; approximately
    100,000;
    Polyox  N10)
    Polyethylene Oxide 0 0 0 0 0 89.5
    (MW: approximately
    2,000,000;
    Polyox N-60K)
    Polyethylene Oxide 0 0 0 0 89.5 0
    MW; approximately
    7,000,000;
    Polyox  WSR 303)
    Butylated 0 0 0 0.5 0 0
    Hydroxytoluene
    (BHT)
    Magnesium Stearate 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
    Total 100 100 100 100 100 100
    Blend size (g) 125 125 125 125 157.5 155.5
    Total Batch size (g) 250 250 250 250 157.5 155.5
    (amount
    manufactured)
  • [0418]
    The processing steps to manufacture tablets were as follows:
    • 1. Oxycodone HCl and Polyethylene Oxide (and BHT if required) were dry mixed for 30 seconds in a low/high shear Black & Decker Handy Chopper dual blade mixer
    • 2. Magnesium stearate was added to Step 1 blend and mixed for an additional 30 seconds.
    • 3. Step 2 blend was compressed to target weight on a single station tablet Manesty Type F 3 press using standard round (0.2656 inch) concave tooling
    • 4. Step 3 tablets were loaded into a 15 inch coating pan (LCDS Vector Laboratory Development Coating System) at 38 rpm equipped with one baffle. A temperature probe (wire thermocouple) was placed inside the coating pan near the bed of tablets to monitor the bed temperature. The tablet bed was heated to a temperature of about 70-about 80 C. (the temperature can be derived from Tables 4.1 to 4.6 for each Example) for a minimum of 30 minutes and a maximum of 2 hours. The tablet bed was then cooled and discharged.
  • [0423]
    In vitro testing including testing for tamper resistance (breaking strength and hammer test) was performed as follows:
  • [0424]
    Uncured and tablets cured at 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 hours of curing were tested in vitro using USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C., using a Perkin Elmer UV/VIS Spectrometer Lambda 20, UV wavelength at 220 nM. Tablet dimensions and dissolution results corresponding to the respective curing time and temperature are presented in Tables 4.1 to 4.6.
  • [0425]
    As a further tamper resistance test, the cured and uncured tablets were subjected to a breaking strength test applying a force of a maximum of 196 Newton using a Schleuniger 2E/106 Apparatus to evaluate the resistance to breaking. The results are provided in Tables 4.1 to 4.6.
  • [0426]
    Additionally, the tablets were flattened with a hammer using 10 manually conducted hammer strikes to impart physical tampering (hammer test).
  • [0000]
    TABLE 4.1
    Example 4.1
    Uncured Cure Time (hours) (n = 5)
    (n = 10) 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
    Tablet Weight (mg) 108 109  108  107  107 
    Dimensions Thickness (mm) 3.64    3.93    3.94    3.90    3.83
    Diameter (mm) 6.74    6.62    6.57    6.55    6.52
    Breaking strength 94 196+2 196+2 196+2 196+2
    (N)
    Diameter (mm) mashed1    5.15    5.38    5.23    5.44
    post breaking
    strength test
    (measured directly
    after the test)
    Curing  0 min   19.7
    Process  10 min   66.2
    Tablet Bed  20 min   68.6
    Temp C.  30 min   73.5
    (temperature  40 min   76.9
    probe  60 min   78.9
    within the  90 min   79.8
    pan) 120 min   80.2
    n = 3 3 2 2 2
    Dissolution 0.5 hr 19 21 18 18 19
    (%   1 hr 30 32 30 29 31
    Released)   2 hr 47 49 46 46 50
      4 hr 71 76 70 69 75
      8 hr 93 96 91 89 93
     12 hr 99 99 96 93 96
    n = 1 1 1
    Post Hammer Test3 (10 strikes n/a    1.70    2.18    2.37    2.09
    applied manually)    2.31    2.06    2.26
    Thickness (mm)    2.39    2.66    2.28
    1Tablets mashed and crumbled during the breaking strength test
    2196+ means that subjected to the maximum force of 196 Newton the tablets did not break
    3Applied 10 hammer strikes, the tablets flattened but did not break apart, hammering imparted some edge splits.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 4.2
    Example 4.2
    Uncured Cure Time (hours) (n = 5)
    (n =10) 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
    Tablet Weight (mg) 108 109    109    109    107   
    Dimensions Thickness (mm) 3.65 3.90 3.92 3.87 3.74
    Diameter (mm) 6.74 6.61 6.54 6.52 6.46
    Breaking strength (N) 93 196+3    196+3    196+3    196+3   
    Diameter (mm) mashed2 5.40 5.37 5.36 5.61
    post breaking strength
    test (measured directly
    after the test)
    Relaxed diameter (mm) 5.60 5.52 5.48 5.73
    post breaking strength
    test (NLT 15 min relax
    period)
    Curing 0 min 20.2 
    Process 10 min 71.6 
    Tablet Bed 20 min 74.9 
    Temp C. 30 min 76.1 
    (temperature 40 min 79.8 
    probe within 60 min 80.2 
    the pan) 90 min 76.4 
    120 min 77.5 
    Dissolution 0.5 hr 20    20    29   
    (% Released) 1 hr 30    31    44   
    (n = 3) 2 hr 47    47    66   
    4 hr 70    70    90   
    8 hr 89    91    95   
    12 hr 92    94    94   
    n = 1 1 1 1
    Post Hammer Test (10 strikes n/a 1.98 2.00 1.80 1.62
    applied manually) 1.96 1.76 2.06 1.95
    Thickness (mm) 1.99 1.79 1.98 1.53
    2Tablets mashed and crumbled during the breaking strength test
    3196+ means that subjected to the maximum force of 196 Newton the tablets did not break.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 4.3
    Example 4.3
    Uncured Cure Time (hours) (n = 5)
    (n = 10) 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
    Tablet Weight (mg) 108 107    108    108    107   
    Dimensions Thickness (mm) 3.63 3.85 3.82 3.78 3.72
    Diameter (mm) 6.74 6.61 6.55 6.48 6.46
    Breaking strength (N) 91 196+3    196+3    196+3    196+3   
    Diameter (mm) mashed2 5.58 5.60 5.56 5.72
    post breaking strength
    test (measured directly
    after the test)
    Relaxed diameter (mm) 5.77 5.75 5.68 5.82
    post breaking strength
    test (NLT 15 min relax
    period)
    Curing 0 min 20.3 
    Process 10 min 71.0 
    Tablet Bed 20 min 74.1 
    Temp C. 30 min 75.9 
    (temperature 40 min 76.5 
    probe within 60 min 77.8 
    the pan 90 min 76.0 
    within the 120 min 80.2 
    pan)
    n = 3 3 2
    Dissolution 0.5 hr 22    23    33   
    (% Released) 1 hr 32    35    52   
    2 hr 49    54    76   
    4 hr 70    80    93   
    8 hr 94    95    96   
    12 hr 96    96    96   
    n = 1 1 1 1
    Post Hammer Test (10 strikes n/a 2.16 1.95 1.43 1.53
    applied manually) 1.96 1.85 1.67 1.66
    Thickness (mm) 1.91 2.03 1.65 2.08
    2Tablets mashed and crumbled during the breaking strength test
    3196+ means that subjected to the maximum force of 196 Newton the tablets did not break.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 4.4
    Example 4.4
    Uncured Cure Time (hours) (n = 5)
    (n = 10) 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
    Tablet Weight (mg) 101 101    101    101    101   
    Dimensions Thickness (mm) 3.49 3.75 3.71 3.69 3.70
    Diameter (mm) 6.75 6.59 6.55 6.55 6.52
    Breaking strength (N) 81 196+3    196+3    196+3    196+3   
    Diameter (mm) mashed2 5.39 5.39 5.39 5.47
    post breaking strength
    test (measured directly
    after the test
    Relaxed diameter (mm) 5.58 5.59 5.58 5.63
    post breaking strength
    test (NLT 15 min relax
    period)
    Curing 0 min 37.3 
    Process 5 min 67.0 
    Tablet Bed 10 min 71.8 
    Temp C. 20 min 74.6 
    (temperature 30 min 76.2 
    probe within 40 min 77.0 
    the pan) 60 min 78.7 
    90 min 80.3 
    120 min 79.3 
    Dissolution 0.5 hr 17    16   
    (% Released) 1 hr 26    25   
    (n = 3) 2 hr 41    40   
    4 hr 63    59   
    8 hr 79    75   
    12 hr 82    80   
    n = 1 1 1 1
    Post Hammer Test (10 strikes 2.11 2.42 2.14 2.18
    applied manually) 2.29 2.25 2.28 2.09
    Thickness (mm) 2.32 2.13 2.07 2.36
    2Tablets mashed and crumbled during the breaking strength test.
    3196+ means that subjected to the maximum force of 196 Newton the tablets did not break.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 4.5
    Example 4.5
    Uncured Cure Time (hours) (n = 5)
    (n = 10) 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
    Tablet Weight (mg) 108 108    107    107    107   
    Dimensions Thickness (mm) 3.61 3.87 3.84 3.84 3.84
    Diameter (mm) 6.74 6.69 6.63 6.61 6.59
    Breaking strength (N) 116 196+3    196+3    196+3    196+3   
    Diameter (mm) mashed2 5.49 5.59 5.51 5.54
    post breaking strength
    test(measured directly
    after the test
    Diameter (mm) post 5.67 5.76 5.67 5.68
    breaking strength test
    (NLT 15 min relax
    period)
    Curing 0 min 19.8 
    Process 5 min 56.8 
    Tablet Bed 10 min 70.0 
    Temp C. 20 min 74.6 
    (temperature 30 min 76.2 
    probe within 40 min 77.0 
    the pan) 60 min 78.2 
    90 min 80.2 
    120 min 80.3 
    Dissolution 0.5 hr 21    20   
    (% Released) 1 hr 33    32   
    (n = 3) 2 hr 51    51   
    4 hr 75    76   
    8 hr 96    96   
    12 hr 100    100   
    n = 1 1 1 1
    Post Hammer Test (10 strikes 2.19 2.31 2.36 2.45
    applied manually) 2.15 2.48 2.42 2.08
    Thickness (mm) 2.10 2.28 2.19 2.28
    2Tablets mashed and crumbled during the breaking strength test
    3196+ means that subjected to the maximum force of 196 Newton the tablets did not break.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 4.6
    Example 4.6
    Un-
    Cured Cure Time (n = 5)
    (n = 6) 10 min 20 min 0.5 hr 1.0 hr 1.5 hr 2.0 hr
    Tablet Weight (mg) 110 108 108 109 108 109 109
    Dimensions Thickness 3.65 3.93 3.89 3.89 3.87 3.85 3.85
    (mm)
    Diameter 6.73 6.71 6.63 6.61 6.57 6.55 6.53
    (mm)
    Breaking 128 196+2
    strength (N)
    Diameter mashed1 5.27 5.47 5.51 5.51 5.56 5.63
    (mm)
    post breaking
    strength test
    (measured
    directly after
    the test
    Diameter 5.48 5.60 5.67 5.66 5.69 5.76
    (mm) post
    breaking
    strength test
    (NLT 15 min
    relax period)
    Curing 0 min 30.8
    Process 5 min 70.5
    Tablet Bed 10 min 79.5
    Temp C. 20 min 79.9
    (temperature 30 min 79.6
    probe within 40 min 80.0
    the pan) 60 min 79.8
    90 min 80.2
    120 min 80.4
    Dissolution 0.5 hr 19 20
    (% Released) 1 hr 30 30
    (n = 3) 2 hr 48 51
    4 hr 73 78
    8 hr 99 99
    12 hr 99 102
    n = 1 1 1 1 1 1
    Post Hammer Test3 1.46 2.18 2.45 2.23 2.38 2.42
    (10 strikes applied 1.19 2.20 2.34 2.39 2.26 2.40
    manually) 1.24 2.18 2.03 2.52 2.50 2.16
    Thickness (mm)
    1Tablets mashed and crumbled during the breaking strength test
    2196+ means that subjected to the maximum force of 196 Newton the tablets did not break.
    3The tablets flattened but did not break apart, hammering imparted some edge splits.
  • Example 5
  • [0427]
    In Example 5 three further tablets including 10% (by wt) of oxycodone HCl were prepared.
  • Compositions:
  • [0428]
  • [0000]
    Example 5.1 Example 5.2 Example 5.3
    mg/unit mg/unit mg/unit
    Tablet (%) (%) (%)
    Oxycodone HCl 12 20 12
    (10) (10) (10)
    Polyethylene Oxide  106.8 178    82.8
    (MW: approximately (89) (89) (69)
    4,000,000;
    Polyox  WSR 301)
    Polyethylene Oxide  0  0 24
    (lMW; approximately (20)
    100,000;
    Polyox  N10)
    Magnesium Stearate   1.2   2.0   1.2
     (1)  (1)  (1)
    Total 120  200  120 
    Total Batch size (kg) 100  100  100 
    (amount
    manufactured)
    Coating mg/unit mg/unit mg/unit
    Opadry white film   3.6   6.0   3.
    coating concentrate  (3)  (3)  (3)
    formula Y-5-18024-A
  • [0429]
    The processing steps to manufacture tablets were as follows:
    • 1. The polyethylene oxide was passed through a Sweco Sifter equipped with a 20 mesh screen, into separate suitable containers.
    • 2. A Gemco V blender (with I bar)10 cu. ft. was charged in the following order:
      • Approximately ½ of the polyethylene oxide WSR 301
      • Oxycodone hydrochloride\
      • Polyethylene oxide N10 (only Example 5.3)
      • Remaining polyethylene oxide WSR 301
    • 3. Step 2 materials were blended for 10 minutes (Example 5.1) or 20 minutes (Example 5.2) and 15 minutes (Example 5.3) with the I bar on.
    • 4. Magnesium stearate was charged into the Gemco V blender.
    • 5. Step 4 materials were blended for 3 minutes with the I bar off.
    • 6. Step 5 blend was charged into clean, tared, stainless steel containers.
    • 7. Step 5 blend was compressed to target weight on a 40 station tablet press at 135,000 tph speed using 9/32 standard round, concave (plain) tooling.
    • 8. Step 7 tablets were loaded into a 48 inch Accela-Coat coating pan at 7 rpm at a pan load of 98.6 kg (Example 5.1), 92.2 kg (Example 5.2) and 96.9 kg (Example 5.3) and the tablet bed was heated using an exhaust air temperature to achieve approximately 80 C. (Example 5.2 and 5.3) and 75 C. (Example 5.1) inlet temperature and cured for 1 hour at the target inlet temperature.
    • 9. The pan speed was continued at 7 to 10 rpm and the tablet bed was cooled using an exhaust air temperature to achieve a 25 C. inlet temperature until the bed temperature achieves 30-34 C.
    • 10. The tablet bed was warmed using an exhaust air temperature to achieve a 55 C. inlet temperature. The film coating was started once the outlet temperature approached 39 C. and continued until the target weight gain of 3% was achieved.
    • 11. After coating was completed, the pan speed was set to 1.5 rpm and the exhaust temperature was set to 27 C., the airflow was maintained at the current setting and the system cooled to an exhaust temperature of 27-30 C.
    • 12. The tablets were discharged.
  • [0446]
    In vitro testing including testing for tamper resistance (breaking strength and hammer test) and resistance to alcohol extraction were performed as follows:
  • [0447]
    Tablets cured at 0.5 hours and tablets cured at 1.0 hour and coated were tested in vitro using USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C., using an Agilent UV/VIS Spectrometer Model HP8453, UV wavelength at 220 nM. Tablet dimensions and dissolution results corresponding to the respective curing time and temperature are presented in Tables 5.1 to 5.3.
  • [0448]
    Tablets cured at 1.0 hour and coated were tested in vitro using ethanol/SGF media at a concentration of 40% ethanol to evaluate alcohol extractability. Testing was performed using USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C., using an Agilent UV/VIS Spectrometer Model HP8453, UV wavelength at 230 nM. Tablet dissolution results are presented in Table 5.3.
  • [0449]
    As a further tamper resistance test, the uncured tablets and cured tablets were subjected to a breaking strength test applying a force of a maximum of 439 Newton using a Schleuniger Model 6D apparatus to evaluate the resistance to breaking. The results are provided in Tables 5.1 to 5.3.
  • [0450]
    Additionally, the tablets were flattened with a hammer using 10 manually conducted hammer strikes to impart physical tampering (hammer test).
  • [0000]
    TABLE 5.1
    Example 5.1
    1 hr cure/
    30 min cure coated
    Uncured (n = 10) (n = 10)
    Tablet Weight (mg) 119.71 120  122 
    Dimensions Thickness (mm)   3.632    3.91    3.88
    Diameter (mm)    7.03    7.02
    Breaking 543  4394  4384 
    strength (N)
    diameter (mm)    4.18    4.26
    post breaking
    strength
    Curing 10 min   75.8   75.8
    Process 20 min   75.1   75.1
    Inlet 30 min   76.0   76.0
    Temp C. 40 min   74.5
    50 min   73.5
    60 min   75.6
    Dissolution 0.5 hr 19 19
    (% Released) 1 hr 31 33
    (n = 3) 2 hr 47 50
    4 hr 71 76
    8 hr 93 97
    12 hr 99 102 
    pre post pre post
    Hammer Test 3.90 1.77 3.87 2.09
    (10 strikes applied manually)
    Tablet thickness measured
    (mm) pre and post test (n = 3)
    1Fourteen in-process samples taken (40 tablets per each sample) and each sample averaged. The reported value is the average of the averages.
    2n = 39
    3n = 130
    4n = 10; The tablets did not break when subjected to a maximum force of 438 N/439 N.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 5.2
    Example 5.2
    1 hr cure/
    30 min cure coated
    Uncured (n = 10) (n = 10)
    Tablet Weight (mg) 200.41 201  206 
    Dimensions Thickness (mm)   5.502    5.92    5.86
    Diameter (mm)    7.03    7.01
    Breaking 853 4394  4394 
    strength (N)
    diameter (mm)    5.52    5.72
    post breaking
    strength
    Curing 10 min   79.7   79.7
    Process 20 min   80.3   80.3
    Inlet 30 min   79.3   79.3
    Temp C. 40 min   79.5
    50 min   80.9
    60 min   81.0
    Dissolution 0.5 hr 14 15
    (% Released) 1 hr 23 24
    (n = 3) 2 hr 36 38
    4 hr 57 60
    8 hr 83 85
    12 hr 94 95
    pre post pre post
    Hammer Test 5.92 2.97 5.91 2.84
    (10 strikes applied manually)
    Tablet thickness measured
    (mm) pre and post test (n = 3)
    1Nine in-process samples taken (40 tablets per each sample) and each sample averaged. The reported value is the average of the averages.
    2n = 27
    3n = 90
    4n = 10; The tablets did not break when subjected to a maximum force of 438 N/439 N.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 5.3
    Example 5.3
    1 hr cure/
    30 min cure coated
    Uncured (n = 10) (n = 10)
    Tablet Weight (mg) 120.51 122  125 
    Dimen- Thickness   3.642    3.85    3.77
    sions (mm)
    Diameter    7.03    7.01
    (mm)
    Breaking 563 4384  4394 
    strength (N)
    diameter    3.96    4.28
    (mm)
    post
    breaking
    strength
    Curing 10 min   80.0   80.0
    Process 20 min   82.3   82.3
    Inlet 30 min   78.9   78.9
    Temp 40 min   79.5
    C. 50 min   79.5
    60 min   80.7
    40%
    SGF SGF EtOH
    Dis- 0.5 hr 20 23 21
    solution 1 hr 31 37 31
    (% Re- 2 hr 50 58 50
    leased) 4 hr 76 86 76
    (n = 3) 8 hr 95 100  99
    12 hr 98 100  104 
    pre post pre post
    Hammer Test 3.81 1.63    3.79    1.62
    (10 strikes
    applied manually)
    Tablet thickness
    measured (mm) pre
    and post test (n = 3)
    1Twelve in-process samples taken (40 tablets per each sample) and each sample averaged. The reported value is the average of the averages.
    2n = 33
    3n = 130
    4n = 10; The tablets did not break when subjected to a maximum force of 438 N/439 N.
  • Example 6
  • [0451]
    In Example 6 tablets comprising Naltrexone HCl were prepared.
  • Compositions:
  • [0452]
  • [0000]
    mg/unit
    Tablet
    Naltrexone HCl 10
    Polyethylene Oxide 89.0
    (MW: approximately
    4,000,000;
    Polyox  WSR 301)
    Magnesium Stearate 1.0
    Total 100
    Total Batch size (kg) 20
    (amount
    manufactured)
    Coating
    Base coat 3.0
    Opadry Red film
    coating concentration
    formula
    Y-5-1-15139
    Special effects 3.0
    overcoat
    Opadry FX - Silver
    formula 62W28547
  • [0453]
    The tablets were prepared as outlined in Example 5, wherein a Gemco V blender (with 1 bar)-2 cu.ft, a 8 station rotary tablet press set at 24,000 tph speed with a 9/32 standard round concave (embossed upper/plain lower) tooling and a 24 inch Compu-Lab coater were used. The blending time in step 2 was 8 minutes, the pan load was 9.2 kg and the curing time 2 hours.
  • Example 7
  • [0454]
    Three further examples comprising each 10 mg of oxycodone hydrochloride were manufactured and tested.
  • Compositions:
  • [0455]
  • [0000]
    Example Example
    7.1 7.3
    mg/unit Example 7.2 mg/unit
    Tablet (%) mg/unit (%) (%)
    Oxycodone HCl 10 (5)    10 (6.67) 10 (10)
    Polyethylene Oxide 188 (94)  138.5 (92.3)  69 (69)
    (MW: approximately 4,000,000;
    Polyox  WSR 301)
    Polyethylene Oxide 0 0 20 (20)
    (MW; approximately 100,000;
    Polyox  N10)
    Magnesium Stearate 2 (1) 1.5 (1)   1 (1)
    Total 200 150 100
    Total Batch size (kg) 100 100 100
    (amount manufactured)
    Film Coating mg/unit mg/unit mg/unit
    Opadry white film coating 6 4.5 3
    concentrate formula
    Y-5-18024-A
  • [0456]
    The processing steps to manufacture tablets were as follows:
    • 1. The magnesium stearate was passed through a Sweco Sifter equipped with a 20 mesh screen, into separate suitable containers.
    • 2. A Gemco V blender (with I bar)-10 cu. ft. was charged in the following order:
      • Approximately ½ of the polyethylene oxide WSR 301 Oxycodone hydrochloride
      • Polyethylene oxide N10 (only Example 7.3)
      • Remaining polyethylene oxide WSR 301
    • 3. Step 2 materials were blended for 10 minutes with the I bar on.
    • 4. Magnesium stearate was charged into the Gemco V blender.
    • 5. Step 4 materials were blended for 3 minutes with the I bar off.
    • 6. Step 5 blend was charged into clean, tared, stainless steel containers.
    • 7. Step 5 blend was compressed to target weight on a 40 station tablet press at 135,000 tph speed using 9/32 inch standard round, concave (plain) tooling (Example 7.1 and 7.2) and using ¼ inch standard round, concave (plain) tooling (Example 7.3).
    • 8. Step 7 tablets were loaded into a 48 inch Accela-Coat coating pan at a load of 97.388 kg (Example 7.1), 91.051 kg (Example 7.2) and 89.527 kg (Example 7.3).
    • 9. The pan speed was set to 7 rpm and the tablet bed was heated by setting the exhaust air temperature to achieve an inlet temperature of approximately 75 C. The tablets were cured at the target inlet temperature for 1 hour (Example 7.1 and 7.2) and for 30 minutes (Example 7.3).
    • 10. The pan speed was continued at 6 to 8 rpm and the tablet bed was cooled using an exhaust air temperature to achieve a 25 C. inlet temperature until the exhaust temperature achieves 30-34 C.
    • 11. The tablet bed was warmed using an exhaust air temperature to target a 55 C. inlet temperature. The film coating was started once the outlet temperature approached 39 C. and continued until the target weight gain of 3% was achieved.
    • 12. After coating was completed, the pan speed was set to 1.5 rpm and the exhaust temperature was set to 27 C., the airflow was maintained at the current setting and the system cooled to an exhaust temperature of 27-30 C.
    • 13. The tablets were discharged.
  • [0473]
    In vitro testing including testing for tamper resistance (breaking strength, hammer test and flattened tablets) and resistance to alcohol extraction, as well as stability tests were performed as follows:
  • [0474]
    Cured, coated tablets (whole and flattened) were tested in vitro using USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C. Samples were analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on Waters Atlantis dC18 3.0×150 mm, 3 μm column, using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of acetonitrile and non basic potassium phosphate buffer (pH 3.0) at 230 nm UV detection. Sample time points include 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 hours. Additionally sample time points include 1.0, 4.0 and 12 hours.
  • [0475]
    Cured, coated tablets (whole and flattened) were tested in vitro using ethanol/SGF media at concentrations of 0% and 40% to evaluate alcohol extractability. Testing was performed using USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C. Samples were analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on Waters Atlantis dC18 3.0×150 mm, 3μm column, using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of acetonitrile and non basic potassium phosphate buffer (pH 3.0) at 230 nm UV detection. Sample time points include 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 hours.
  • [0476]
    Cured tablets were subjected to a breaking strength test by applying a force of a maximum of 439 Newton using a Schleuniger Model 6D apparatus to evaluate tablet resistance to breaking.
  • [0477]
    Cured tablets were subject to a high amount of pressure using a Carver manual bench press (hydraulic unit model #3912) to impart physical tampering by flattening the tablets.
  • [0478]
    Cured tablets were subjected to a further breaking strength test by the manual application of 10 hammer strikes to impart physical tampering.
  • [0479]
    Cured, coated tablets were subjected to a stability test by storing them in 100 count bottles at different storage conditions (25 C./60% relative humidity or 40 C./75% relative humidity) for a certain period of time and subsequently testing the tablets in vitro as described above. Sample time points regarding storage include initial sample (i.e. prior to storage), one month, two months, three months and six months of storage, sample time points regarding dissolution test include 1.0, 4.0 and 12.0 hours.
  • [0480]
    Cured, coated tablets were subjected to a further stability test by storing them in 100 count bottles at different storage conditions (25 C./60% relative humidity or 40 C./75% relative humidity) for a certain period of time and subsequently subjecting the tablets to the assay test to determine the content of oxycodone HCl in the tablet samples, in percent relative to the label claim. Sample time points regarding storage include initial sample (i.e. prior to storage), one month, two months, three months and six months of storage. In the assay test, oxycodone hydrochloride was extracted from two sets of ten tablets each with 900 mL of a 1:2 mixture of acetonitrile and simulated gastric fluid without enzyme (SGF) under constant magnetic stirring in a 1000-mL volumetric flask until all tablets were completely dispersed or for overnight. The sample solutions were diluted and analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on Waters Atlantis dC18 3.0×250 mm, 5 μm column maintained at 60 C. using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and potassium phosphate monobasic buffer at pH 3.0 with UV detection at 280 nm.
  • [0481]
    Cured, coated tablets were subjected to a further stability test by storing them in 100 count bottles at different storage conditions (25 C./60% relative humidity or 40 C./75% relative humidity) for a certain period of time and subsequently subjecting the tablets to the oxycodone-N-oxide (ONO) test to determine the content of the degradation product oxycodone-N-oxide in percent relative to the oxycodone HCl label claim. Sample time points regarding storage include initial sample (i.e. prior to storage), one month, two months, three months and six months of storage. In the ONO test, oxycodone hydrochloride and its degradation products were extracted from a set of ten tablets with 900 mL of a 1:2 mixture of acetonitrile and simulated gastric fluid without enzyme (SGF) under constant magnetic stirring in a 1000-mL volumetric flask until all tablets were completely dispersed or for overnight. The sample solutions were diluted and analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on Waters Atlantis dC18 3.0×250 mm, 5 μm column maintained at 60 C. using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and potassium phosphate monobasic buffer at pH 3.0 with UV detection at 206 nm.
  • [0482]
    The results are presented in Tables 7.1 to 7.3
  • [0000]
    TABLE 7.1.1
    Example 7.1
    Flattened (n = 3)
    Whole (n = 10) (15,000 lbs applied)
    Tablet Weight (mg) 205    207 204
    Dimensions Thickness (mm) 5.95 1.011 0.961
    % Thickness 17.0 16.1
    Diameter (mm) 7.02 17.132 17.352
    Breaking strength (N) ≧4383   
    Diameter (mm) 5.84
    post Breaking
    strength
    pre post
    Hammer Test 6.04 2.96
    pre and post 5.95 3.10
    tablet thickness measured (mm) 6.03 3.32
    Whole Whole Flattened Flattened
    SGF 40% EtOH SGF 40% EtOH
    Dissolution 0.5 hr 11 9 17 13
    (% 0.75 hr 15 12 23 18
    Released) 1.0 hr 20 16 28 21
    (n = 3) 1.5 hr 27 21 36 29
    2.0 hr 34 27 44 35
    Whole
    Dissolution 0.5 hr
    (% 1 hr 22   
    Released) 2 hr
    (n = 6) 4 hr 57   
    8 hr
    12 hr 97   
    13 measurements per tablet
    22 measurements per tablet
    3tablets did not break when subjected to the maximum force of 438 Newton
  • [0000]
    TABLE 7.1.2
    Stability tests Example 7.1
    Storage conditions ( C./% RH)
    and storage time1
    1 Mo 2 Mo 3 Mo 3 Mo
    Initial 40/75 40/75 25/60 40/75
    Dissolution (% 1 hr 22 21 21 20 21
    Released) 4 hr 57 57 58 56 58
    (n = 6) 12 hr  97 98 98 97 97
    SGF
    Assay test Assay 1 96.6 96.2 97.3 97.1 95.0
    (% oxycodone Assay 2 95.3 97.2 95.7 98.7 96.0
    HCl)2 Average 96.0 96.7 96.5 97.9 95.5
    ONO test 0.02 0.06 0.06 0.04 0.05
    (% oxycodone N-oxide)2
    1[Mo = month(s)];
    2relative to the label claim of oxycodone HCl.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 7.2.1
    Example 7.2
    Flattened (n = 3)
    Whole (n = 10) (20,000 lbs applied)
    Tablet Weight (mg) 154    154 153
    Dimensions Thickness (mm) 4.68 0.751 0.771
    % Thickness 16.0 16.5
    Diameter (mm) 7.02 17.142 16.902
    Breaking strength (N) 4383   
    Diameter (mm) 4.93
    post Breaking
    strength
    pre post
    Hammer Test 4.73 2.65
    pre and post 4.64 2.95
    tablet thickness measured (mm) 4.67 2.60
    Whole Whole Flattened Flattened
    SGF 40% EtOH SGF 40% EtOH
    Dissolution 0.5 hr 14 10 21 15
    (% 0.75 hr 19 14 27 20
    Released) 1.0 hr 24 17 33 26
    (n = 3) 1.5 hr 33 23 44 36
    2.0 hr 40 29 53 43
    Whole
    Dissolution 0.5 hr
    (% 1 hr 26   
    Released) 2 hr
    (n = 6) 4 hr 67   
    8 hr
    12 hr 98   
    13 measurements per tablet
    22 measurements per tablet
  • [0000]
    TABLE 7.2.2
    Stability tests Example 7.2
    Storage conditions ( C./% RH) and storage time1
    1 Mo 2 Mo 3 Mo 3 Mo 6 Mo 6 Mo
    Initial 40/75 40/75 25/60 40/75 25/60 40/75
    Dissolu- 1 hr 26 24 22 23 24 25 25
    tion (% 4 hr 67 66 61 65 64 64 69
    Released)
    (n = 6) 12 hr  98 101 97 98 99 99 97
    SGF
    Assay test Assay 1 97.1 97.7 96.4 98.4 97.3 96.3 94.1
    (% Assay 2 96.6 96.6 96.2 98.0 96.9 96.3 94.2
    oxycodone Average 96.9 97.1 96.3 98.2 97.1 96.3 94.2
    HCl)2
    ONO test 0.02 0.08 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.26
    (% oxycodone
    N-oxide)2
    1Mo = month(s)];
    2relative to the label claim of oxycodone HCl.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 7.3.1
    Example 7.3
    Flattened (n = 3)
    Whole (n = 10) (15,000 lbs applied)
    Tablet Weight (mg) 103    102 104
    Dimensions Thickness (mm) 3.92 0.611 0.661
    (15.6) (16.8)
    Diameter (mm) 6.25 15.362 15.242
    Breaking strength (N) 4393   
    Diameter (mm) post 3.80
    Breaking strength
    Pre post
    Hammer Test 3.90 1.66
    pre and post 3.89 1.97
    tablet thickness measured (mm) 3.91 1.56
    Whole Whole Flattened Flattened
    SGF 40% EtOH SGF 40% EtOH
    Dissolution 0.5 hr 19 15 26 19
    (% 0.75 hr 25 20 34 25
    Released) 1.0 hr 30 25 40 31
    (n = 3) 1.5 hr 41 33 51 41
    2.0 hr 50 41 60 50
    Whole
    Dissolution 0.5 hr
    (% 1 hr 32   
    Released) 2 hr
    (n = 6) 4 hr 83   
    8 hr
    12 hr 101   
    13 measurements per tablet
    22 measurements per tablet
    3The tablets did not break when subjected to the maximum force of 439 Newton.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 7.3.2
    Stability tests Example 7.3
    Storage conditions ( C./% RH) and
    storage time1
    1 Mo 2 Mo 3 Mo
    Initial 40/75 40/75 25/60
    Dissolution (% 1 hr 32 29 30 31
    Released) 4 hr 83 76 77 78
    (n = 6) 12 hr  101 103 102 103
    SGF
    Assay test Assay 1 99.4 99.4 97.3 101.0
    (% oxycodone Assay 2 98.8 98.9 100.0 101.0
    HCl)2 Average 99.1 99.1 98.6 101.0
    ONO test 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.02
    (% oxycodone N-oxide)2
    1[Mo = month(s)];
    2relative to the label claim of oxycodone HCl
  • Example 8
  • [0483]
    Two further 160 mg oxycodone hydrochloride tablets (Examples 8.1 and 8.2) were manufactured.
  • Compositions:
  • [0484]
  • [0000]
    Example 8.1 Example 8.2
    Ingredient mg/unit % mg/unit %
    Oxycodone 160 25 160 25
    Hydrochloride
    Polyethylene Oxide 476.8 74.5 284.8 44.5
    (high MW, grade
    301)
    Polyethylene Oxide 0 0 192 30
    (low MW, grade
    N10)
    Magnesium Stearate 3.2 0.5 3.2 0.5
    Total 640 100 640 100
  • [0485]
    The processing steps to manufacture tablets were as follows:
    • 1 Oxycodone HCl and Polyethylene Oxide were dry mixed in a low/high shear Black & Decker Handy Chopper dual blade mixer with a 1.5 cup capacity for 30 seconds.
    • 2. Magnesium Stearate was added and mixed with the step 1 blend for additional 30 seconds
    • 3. Step 2 blend was compressed to target weight on a single station tablet Manesty Type F 3 press using a capsule shaped tooling (7.937×14.290 mm).
    • 4. Step 2 tablets were placed onto a tray placed in a Hotpack model 435304 oven at 73 C. for 3 hours to cure the tablets.
  • [0490]
    In vitro testing including testing for tamper resistance (breaking strength test) was performed as follows:
  • [0491]
    The tablets were tested in vitro using USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C., using an Agilent UV/VIS Spectrometer Model HP8453, UV wavelength at 280 nM, after having been subjected to curing for 3 hours. Tablet dimensions of the uncured and cured tablets and dissolution results are presented in Table 8.
  • [0492]
    As a further tamper resistance test, the cured and uncured tablets were subjected to a breaking strength test applying a force of a maximum of 196 Newton using a Schleuniger 2E/106 Apparatus to evaluate the resistance to breaking. The results are presented in Table 8.
  • [0493]
    Additionally, the tablets were flattened with a hammer using 10 manually conducted hammer strikes to impart physical tampering (hammer test). Results are presented in Table 8.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 8
    Example 8.1 Example 8.2
    Uncured 3 hr cure Uncured 3 hr cure
    (n = 12) (n = 5) (n = 12) (n = 10)
    Tablet Weight 648    648  643  643 
    (mg)
    Dimensions Thickness 7.07    7.42    7.01    7.20
    (mm)
    Width 7.96    7.97    7.96    7.91
    (mm)
    Breaking 196+1     196+1  196+1  196+1
    strength (n = 2) (n = 1) (n = 2) (n = 2)
    (N)
    Dissolution 0.5 hr   Not tested  9 Not 13
    (% Released) 1 hr 15 tested 21
    2 hr 23 35
    4 hr 38 59
    8 hr 60 89
    12 hr  76 92
    Post Hammer Test Readily Readily    3.80
    (10 strikes applied broke broke
    manually) apart
    Thickness (mm) apart
    1The hardness tester would max at 20+ Kp equivalent to 196+ Newtons (1 Kp = 9.807 Newtons), the tablets did not break when subjected to the maximum force of 196 N.
  • Example 9
  • [0494]
    Three examples comprising each 12 mg of hydromorphone hydrochloride were manufactured and tested.
  • Compositions:
  • [0495]
  • [0000]
    Example 9.1 Example 9.2 Example 9.3
    mg/unit mg/unit mg/unit
    Tablet
    Hydromorphone HCl 12 12 12
    Polyethylene Oxide 483 681 829.5
    (MW: approximately
    7,000,000;
    Polyox  WSR 303)
    Magnesium Stearate 5 7 8.5
    Total 500 700 850
    Total Batch size (kg) 100 100 100
    (amount manufactured)
    Film Coating
    Magnesium Stearate 0.100 0.142 0.170
    Opadry white film 15 21 25.5
    coating concentrate
    formula Y-5-18024-A
    Coating Batch Size (kg) 80 79 80
  • [0496]
    The processing steps to manufacture tablets were as follows:
    • 1. The Hydromorphone HCl and magnesium stearate were passed through a Sweco Sifter equipped with a 20 mesh screen, into separate suitable containers.
    • 2. A Gemco V blender (with I bar)10 cu. ft. was charged in the following order:
      • Approximately 25 kg of the polyethylene oxide WSR 303
      • Hydromorphone hydrochloride
      • Approximately 25 kg of the polyethylene oxide WSR 303
    • 3. Step 2 materials were blended for 10 minutes with the I bar on.
    • 4. The remaining polyethylene oxide WSR 303 was charged into the Gemco V blender.
    • 5. Step 4 materials were blended for 10 minutes with the I bar on.
    • 6. Magnesium stearate was charged into the Gemco V blender.
    • 7. Step 6 materials were blended for 3 minutes with the I bar off.
    • 8. Step 7 blend was charged into clean, tared, stainless steel containers.
    • 9. Step 8 blend was compressed to target weight on a 40 station tablet press at 133,000 tph speed using ½ inch standard round, concave (plain) tooling.
    • 10. Step 9 tablets were loaded into a 48 inch Accela-Coat coating pan at a load of 80 kg (Example 9.1 and 9.3) and 79 kg (Example 9.2).
    • 11. The pan speed was set to 2 rpm and the tablet bed was heated by setting the exhaust air temperature to achieve a target inlet temperature of approximately 75 C. The tablets were cured for 1 hour and 15 minutes at the following inlet temperature range, 75-87 C. (Example 9.1), 75-89 C. (Example 9.2) and 75-86 C. (Example 9.3).
    • 12. At the onset of cooling the pan speed was increased to 7 rpm and the tablet bed was cooled using an exhaust air temperature to achieve a 25 C. inlet temperature until the exhaust temperature achieves 30-34 C. During the cooling process, magnesium stearate was added to the tablet bed to reduce tablet sticking.
    • 13. The tablet bed was warmed using an exhaust air temperature to target a 55 C. inlet temperature. The film coating was started once the outlet temperature approached 39 C. and continued until the target weight gain of 3% was achieved.
    • 14. After coating was completed, the pan speed was set to 1.5 rpm and the exhaust temperature was set to 27 C., the airflow was maintained at the current setting and the system cooled to an exhaust temperature of 27-30 C.
    • 15. The tablets were discharged.
  • Example 10
  • [0515]
    A further tablet comprising 12 mg of hydromorphone hydrochloride was prepared.
  • Composition:
  • [0516]
  • [0000]
    Example 10
    Tablet mg/unit
    Hydromorphone HCl 12
    Polyethylene Oxide 483
    (MW: approximately 7,000,000;
    Polyox  WSR 303)
    Magnesium Stearate 5
    Total 500
    Total Batch size (kg) 119.98
    (amount manufactured)
  • [0517]
    The processing steps to manufacture tablets were as follows:
    • 1. The hydromorphone HCl and magnesium stearate were passed through a Sweco Sifter equipped with a 20 mesh screen, into separate suitable containers.
    • 2. A Gemco V blender (with 1 bar)10 cu. ft. was charged in the following order:
      • Approximately 60 kg of the polyethylene oxide WSR 303
      • Hydromorphone hydrochloride
    • 3. Step 2 materials were blended for 10 minutes with the I bar on.
    • 4. The remaining polyethylene oxide WSR 303 was charged into the Gemco V blender.
    • 5. Step 4 materials were blended for 10 minutes with the I bar on.
    • 6. Magnesium stearate was charged into the Gemco V blender.
    • 7. Step 6 materials were blended for 3 minutes with the I bar off.
    • 8. Step 7 blend was charged into clean, tared, stainless steel containers.
    • 9. Step 8 blend was compressed to target weight on a 40 station tablet press at 150,000 tph speed using ½ inch standard round, concave (plain) tooling.
    • 10. Step 9 tablets were loaded into a 48 inch Accela-Coat coating pan at a load of 92.887 kg.
    • 11. The pan speed was set to 1.9 rpm and the tablet bed was heated by setting the exhaust air temperature to achieve a target inlet temperature of approximately 80 C. The tablets were cured for 2 hours at the following inlet temperature range 80-85 C.
    • 12. At the end of curing and onset of cooling, the tablet bed began to agglomerate (tablets sticking together). The pan speed was increased up to 2.8 rpm, but the tablet bed fully agglomerated and was non-recoverable for coating.
  • [0532]
    It is assumed that the agglomeration of tablets can be avoided, for example by lowering the curing temperature, by increasing the pan speed, by the use of Magnesium Stearate as anti-tacking agent, or by applying a sub-coating prior to curing.
  • [0533]
    However some tablets were sampled prior to cooling for In vitro testing which was performed as follows:
  • [0534]
    Cured tablets were tested in vitro using USP Apparatus 2 (paddle) at 75 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C. using an on Waters Alliance System equipped with a Waters Novapak C18 3.9 mm×150 mm column, using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of acetonitrile, SDS, and mono basic sodium phosphate buffer (pH 2.9). Detection was done with a PDA detector. Sample time points include 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, and 22 hours.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 10
    USP Apparatus 2
    Dissolution 1 hr 19
    (% Released) 2 hr 30
    (n = 6) 4 hr 48
    8 hr 77
    12 hr  95
    18 hr  103
    22 hr  104
  • Example 11
  • [0535]
    A further tablet comprising 12 mg of hydromorphone hydrochloride was prepared.
  • Composition:
  • [0536]
  • [0000]
    mg/unit
    Tablet
    Hydromorphone HCl 12
    Polyethylene Oxide 681
    (MW: approximately 7,000,000;
    Polyox  WSR 303)
    Magnesium Stearate 7
    Total 700
    Total Batch size (kg) 122.53
    (amount manufactured)
    Film Coating
    Opadry white film coating concentrate 21
    formula Y-5-18024-A
    Coating Batch Size (kg) 80
  • [0537]
    The processing steps to manufacture tablets were as follows:
    • 1. The hydromorphone HCl and magnesium stearate were passed through a Sweco Sifter equipped with a 20 mesh screen, into separate suitable containers.
    • 2. A Gemco V blender (with I bar)10 cu. ft. was charged in the following order:
      • Approximately 60 kg of the polyethylene oxide WSR 303
      • Hydromorphone hydrochloride
    • 3. The remaining polyethylene oxide WSR 303 was charged into the Gemco V blender.
    • 4. Step 4 materials were blended for 10 minutes with the I bar on.
    • 5. Magnesium stearate was charged into the Gemco V blender.
    • 6. Step 5 materials were blended for 3 minutes with the I bar off.
    • 7. Step 6 blend was charged into clean, tared, stainless steel containers.
    • 8. Step 7 blend was compressed to target weight on a 40 station tablet press at 150,000 tph speed using ½ inch standard round, concave (plain) tooling.
    • 9. Step 8 tablets were loaded into a 48 inch Accela-Coat coating pan at a load of 80.000 kg.
    • 10. The pan speed was set to 1.8 rpm and the tablet bed was heated by setting the exhaust air temperature to achieve a target inlet temperature of approximately 80 C. The tablets were cured for 1.25 hours at the following inlet temperature range 75-85 C.
    • 11. At the end of curing and onset of cooling, the tablet bed began to agglomerate (tablets sticking together). The pan speed was increased up to 10 rpm, and the tablets separated.
    • 12. The pan speed was continued at approximately 10 rpm and the tablet bed was cooled using an exhaust air temperature to achieve a 25 C. inlet temperature until the exhaust temperature achieves 30-34 C.
    • 13. The tablet bed was warmed using an exhaust air temperature to target a 55 C. inlet temperature. The film coating was started once the outlet temperature approached 39 C. and continued until the target weight gain of 3% was achieved.
    • 14. After coating was completed, the pan speed was set to 1.5 rpm and the exhaust temperature was set to 27 C., the airflow was maintained at the current setting and the system cooled to an exhaust temperature of 27-30 C.
    • 15. The tablets were discharged.
      In vitro testing was performed as follows:
  • [0555]
    Coated tablets were tested in vitro using USP Apparatus 2 (paddle) at 75 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C. using an a Waters Alliance System equipped with a Waters Novapak C18 3.9 mm×150 mm column, using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of acetonitrile, SDS, and mono basic sodium phosphate buffer (pH 2.9). Detection was done with a PDA detector. Sample time points include 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, 22, and 24 hours. The results are presented in Table 11.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 11
    USP Apparatus 2
    Dissolution  1 hr 12
    (% Released)  2 hr 19
    (Mean n = 6)  4 hr 29
     8 hr 46
    12 hr 60
    18 hr 76
    22 hr 84
    24 hr 88
  • Example 12
  • [0556]
    Two further examples comprising 10 mg of oxycodone hydrochloride which include core tablets as presented in Example 2.3 were manufactured which were coated by a polyethylene oxide coating to provide a delay of the release.
  • Composition: Core Tablet
  • [0557]
  • [0000]
    Ingredient mg/unit
    Oxycodone HCl 10
    Polyethylene Oxide 85
    (MW: approximately
    4,000,000;
    Polyox  WSR301)
    Hydroxypropyl Cellulose 5
    (Klucel  HXF)
    Total Tablet Core 100
  • Composition: Compression Coat Over Core Tablet
  • [0558]
  • [0000]
    Example 12.1 Example 12.2
    Ingredient mg/unit mg/unit
    Polyethylene Oxide 200 100
    (MW: approximately
    4,000,000;
    Polyox  WSR301)
    Core tablet 100 100
    Total Tablet Weight 300 200
  • Process of Manufacture:
  • [0559]
    The processing steps to manufacture tablets were as follows:
    • 1. A tablet from Example 2.3 was used as the tablet core.
    • 2. A single station Manesty Type F 3 tablet press was equipped with 0.3125 inch, round, standard concave plain tooling.
    • 3. For Example 12.1, approximately 100 mg of Polyethylene Oxide was placed in the die, the tablet core was manually centered in the die (on top of the powder bed), an additional 100 mg of Polyethylene Oxide was placed on top of the tablet in the die.
    • 4. The materials were manually compressed by turning the compression wheel.
    • 5. For Example 12.2, approximately 50 mg of Polyethylene Oxide was placed in the die, the tablet core was manually centered in the die (on top of the powder bed), an additional 50 mg of Polyethylene Oxide was placed on top of the tablet in the die.
    • 6. The materials were manually compressed by turning the compression wheel.
    • 7. Step 4 and step 6 tablets were placed onto a tray placed in a Hotpack model 435304 oven targeting 75 C. for 3 hours to cure the compression coated tablets.
      In vitro testing was performed as follows:
  • [0567]
    The tablets were tested in vitro using USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C., using a Perkin Elmer UV/VIS Spectrometer Lambda 20 USP Apparatus, UV at 220 nM. The cured compression coated tablet dimensions and dissolution results are presented in Table 12.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 12
    Example 12.1 Example 12.2
    Tablet Weight (mg) 304 312 209 210
    Dimensions Thickness (mm) 5.62 5.73 5.24 5.29
    Diameter (mm) 9.10 9.10 7.61 7.54
    Dissolution 0.5 hr   0 1
    (% Released) 1 hr 0 15
    (n = 2) 2 hr 1 47
    4 hr 9 95
    8 hr 82 96
    12 hr  97 96
  • Example 13
  • [0568]
    In Example 13, five different 156 mg tablets (Examples 13.1 to 13.5) including 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 mg of Oxycodone HCl were prepared using high molecular weight polyethylene oxide.
  • Compositions:
  • [0569]
  • [0000]
    Exam- Exam-
    Example ple Example ple Example
    13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5
    mg/unit mg/unit mg/unit mg/unit mg/unit
    Ingredient
    Oxycodone HCl 10 15 20 30 40
    Polyethylene 138.5 133.5 128.5 118.5 108.5
    oxide (MW:
    approximately
    4,000,000;
    Polyox  WSR-
    301)
    Magnesium 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
    Stearate
    Total Core Tablet 150 150 150 150 150
    Weight (mg)
    Total Batch size 10 kg 10 kg 10 kg 10 kg 10 kg
    Coating
    Opadry film 6 6 6 6 6
    coating
    Total Tablet 156 156 156 156 156
    Weight (mg)
    Coating Batch 8.754 9.447 9.403 8.717 8.902
    Size (kg)

    The processing steps to manufacture tablets were as follows:
    • 1. A Patterson Kelly V blender (with I bar)16 quart was charged in the following order:
      • Approximately ½ of the polyethylene oxide WSR 301
      • Oxycodone hydrochloride
      • Remaining polyethylene oxide WSR 301
    • 2. Step 1 materials were blended for 5 minutes with the I bar on.
    • 3. Magnesium stearate was charged into the V blender.
    • 4. Step 3 materials were blended for 1 minute with the I bar off.
    • 5. Step 4 blend was charged into a plastic bag.
    • 6. Step 5 blend was compressed to target weight on an 8 station tablet press at 35,000 tph speed using 9/32 inch standard round, concave (embossed) tooling.
    • 7. Step 6 tablets were loaded into a 24 inch Compu-Lab coating pan at a pan load of 8.754 kg (Example 13.1), 9.447 kg (Example 13.2), 9.403 kg (Example 13.3), 8.717 kg (Example 13.4), 8.902 kg (Example 13.5).
    • 8. A temperature probe (wire thermocouple) was placed into the pan directly above the tablet bed so that the probe tip was near the moving bed of tablets.
    • 9. The pan speed was set to 7 rpm and the tablet bed was heated by setting the inlet temperature to achieve a probe target temperature of 75 C. The curing starting point (as described by method 4) was initiated once the temperature probe indicated approximately 70 C. (Example 13.1 at 68.3 C., Example 13.2 at 69.9 C., Example 13.3 and 13.4 at 70.0 C., and Example 13.5 at 71.0 C.). Once the target probe temperature was achieved, the inlet temperature was adjusted as necessary to maintain this target probe temperature. The tablets were cured for 90 minutes. The pan speed was increased to 12 rpm at approximately 60 minutes of curing (except for Example 13.5, the pan speed was maintained at 7 rpm throughout curing). Samples were taken after 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 90 minutes of curing. The temperature profile of the curing processes for Examples 13.1 to 13.5 is presented in Tables 13.1.1 to 13.5.1 and in FIGS. 10 to 14.
    • 10. At the end of curing, magnesium stearate was added to the moving be of tablets as an anti-tacking agent. The amount of magnesium stearate added was 8.75 g (Example 13.1), 1.8887 g (Example 13.2), 1.8808 g (Example 13.3), 1.7400 g (Example 13.4), and 1.784 g (Example 13.5). The magnesium stearate was weighed in a weigh boat and was applied by manually dispensing (dusting) the powder across the moving tablet bed. The pan speed was continued at 12 rpm (Example 13.5 at 7 rpm) and the tablet bed was cooled by setting the inlet temperature to 21 C. The tablet bed was cooled to an exhaust temperature of <41 C.
    • 11. The tablet bed was warmed using an inlet setting of 55 C. The film coating was started once the exhaust temperature achieved approximately 43 C. and continued until the target weight gain of 4% was achieved.
    • 12. After film coating was completed, the pan speed was reduced (3 to 6 rpm) and the inlet temperature was set to 21 to 25 C. to cool the system, the airflow was maintained at the current setting.
    • 13. The tablets were discharged.
  • [0586]
    In vitro testing including breaking strength tests and density measurement was performed as follows:
  • [0587]
    Tablets cured for 30 minutes and 60 minutes, and tablets cured for 90 minutes and coated were tested in vitro using USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C. Samples were analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on Waters Atlantis dC18 3.0×150 mm, 3 μm column, using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of acetonitrile and non basic potassium phosphate buffer (pH 3.0) at 230 nm UV detection. Sample time points include 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 12.0 hours. Tablet dimensions and dissolution results corresponding to the respective curing time and temperature are presented in Tables 13.1.2 to 13.5.2.
  • [0588]
    Uncured tablets, cured tablets and cured, coated tablets were subjected to a breaking strength test by applying a force of a maximum of 439 Newton using a Schleuniger Model 6D apparatus to evaluate tablet resistance to breaking or to a breaking strength test applying a force of a maximum of 196 Newton using a Schleuniger 2E/106 Apparatus to evaluate the resistance to breaking.
  • [0589]
    The density of uncured tablets and tablets cured for different periods of time (30, 60 and 90 minutes samples) was determined by Archimedes principle, using a Top-loading Mettler Toledo balance Model #AB 135-S/FACT, Serial #1127430072 and a density determination kit 33360, according to the following procedure:
    • 1. Set-up the Mettler Toledo balance with the Density Determination Kit.
    • 2. Fill an appropriately sized beaker (200 ml) with hexane.
    • 3. Weigh the tablet in air and record the weight as Weight A.
    • 4. Transfer the same tablet onto the lower coil within the beaker filled with hexane.
    • 5. Determine the weight of the tablet in hexane and record the weight as Weight B.
    • 6. Perform the density calculation according to the equation
  • [0000]
    ρ = A A - B ρ 0 ,
  • [0000]
    wherein
      • ρ: Density of the tablet
      • A: Weight of the tablet in air
      • B: Weight of the tablet when immersed in the liquid
      • ρ0: Density of the liquid at a given temperature (density of hexane at
      • 20 C.=0.660 g/ml (Merck Index)
    • 7. Record the density.
      The reported density values are mean values of 3 tablets and all refer to uncoated tablets.
  • [0602]
    The results are presented in the following Tables.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 13.1.1
    Temperature profile of the curing process for Ex. 13.1
    Total Curing Set inlet Actual inlet Probe Exhaust
    Time time temperature temperature temperature temperature
    (min.) (min.)1 ( C.) ( C.)2 ( C.)3 ( C.)4 Comments
    0 27 26.9 26.8 25.7
    10 75 74.9 59.5 56.8
    15 0 85 84.8 68.3 65.5 Curing starts
    20 5 85 84.7 71 68.4
    26 11 85 84.8 72.8 70.1
    30 15 85 84.8 74 70.9
    45 30 83 83 74.8 74.7 30 min sample
    55 40 81 81.2 74.8 76
    61 46 81 81.2 74.7 75.9
    65 50 81 81 74.8 75.8
    70 55 81 81 74.7 75.8
    75 60 81 81.1 75 75.9 60 min sample
    85 70 81 81.1 74.6 75.8
    95 80 81 81.1 74.8 75.9
    105 90 81 80.9 74.9 76 End of curing,
    90 min sample
    112 21 35.3 49 55.6
    128 21 33.4 32
    1determined according to method 4,
    2temperature measured at the inlet;
    3temperature measured using the temperature probe (wire thermocouple)
    4temperature measured at the exhaust.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 13.1.2
    Example 13.1
    90 min
    30 min 60 min cure,
    Uncured cure cure coated
    (n = 5) (n = 5) (n = 5) (n = 5)
    Tablet Weight 153 153    152    158   
    Dimensions (mg)
    Thickness 4.63 4.98 4.89 4.89
    (mm)
    Diameter 7.14 7.00 6.98 6.98
    (mm)
    Breaking 80 1961    1961    4382   
    strength
    (N)
    n = 3 n = 3 n = 6
    Dissolution 1 hr 25 (9.5) 24 (8.4) 27 (7.3)
    (% 2 hr 39 (7.7) 39 (8.7) 43 (6.6)
    Released) 4 hr 62 (7.0) 62 (5.8) 67 (6.8)
    SGF 8 hr 89 (4.7) 91 (5.0) 92 (2.9)
    12 hr  100 (3.3)  100 (3.6)  101 (2.4) 
    1maximum force of the hardness tester, the tablets did not break when subjected to the maximum force of 196 N.
    2maximum force of the hardness tester, the tablets did not break when subjected to the maximum force of 438 N.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 13.2.1
    Temperature profile of the curing process for Ex. 13.2
    Total Curing Set inlet Actual inlet Probe Exhaust
    Time time temperature temperature temperature temperature
    (min.) (min.)1 ( C.) ( C.)2 ( C.)3 ( C.)4 Comments
    0 23 22.7 26.1 23.8
    5 85 81 55.7 51.1
    10 85 85.1 63.7 62.3
    21 0 85 84.8 69.9 69.1 Curing starts
    31 10 85 85.1 72.4 70.9
    41 20 85 85.1 73.7 72.5
    51 30 82 82 74.8 75.8 30 min sample
    61 40 82 81.9 75 76.2
    71 50 81 81 74.8 75.9
    81 60 81 80.8 75 75.9 60 min sample
    91 70 81 81 74.9 76
    101 80 80.5 80.5 74.8 75.8
    111 90 80.5 80.5 74.8 75.7 End of curing,
    90 min sample
    118 21 23.1 50 55.1
    131 21 22.4 34.1 37.7
    1determined according to method 4,
    2temperature measured at the inlet;
    3temperature measured using the temperature probe (wire thermocouple),
    4temperature measured at the exhaust.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 13.2.2
    Example 13.2
    90 min
    30 min 60 min cure,
    Uncured cure cure coated
    (n = 5) (n = 5) (n = 5) (n = 5)
    Tablet Weight 152 153    152    157   
    Dimensions (mg)
    Thickness 4.69 4.99 4.90 4.84
    (mm)
    Diameter 7.14 6.98 6.95 6.95
    (mm)
    Breaking 62 1961    1961    1961   
    strength
    (N)
    n = 6 n = 6 n = 6
    Dissolution 1 hr  23 (10.6) 22 (8.5) 25 (5.2)
    (% 2 hr  38 (10.1) 37 (7.7) 41 (4.6)
    Released) 4 hr 64 (9.5) 61 (8.1) 65 (3.6)
    SGF 8 hr 92 (6.8) 90 (4.6) 91 (2.4)
    12 hr  100 (3.4)  100 (3.2)  99 (2.9)
    1maximum force of the hardness tester, the tablets did not break when subjected to the maximum force of 196 N.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 13.3.1
    Temperature profile of the curing process for Ex. 13.3:
    Total Curing Set inlet Actual inlet Probe Exhaust
    Time time temperature temperature temperature temperature
    (min.) (min.)1 ( C.) ( C.)2 ( C.)3 ( C.)4 Comments
    0 25 24.9 27.8 26.2
    5 90 85 58.2 53.9
    10 90 89.8 67 65.1
    13 0 90 90.1 70 68.3 Curing starts
    23 10 90 90 74.6 72.2
    33 20 86 85.9 74.7 73.4
    43 30 83 83.1 75.4 76.5 30 min sample
    53 40 82 82.1 74.9 76.3
    63 50 81.5 81.8 75 76.4
    73 60 81.5 81.5 74.7 76.1 60 min sample
    83 70 81.5 81.5 75 76.1
    93 80 81.5 81.6 75 76.1
    103 90 81.5 81.3 75 76.1 End of curing,
    90 min sample
    109 21 35.5 50 57.5
    121 21 22.6 33.8 39.3
    1determined according to method 4,
    2temperature measured at the inlet;
    3temperature measured using the temperature probe (wire thermocouple),
    4temperature measured at the exhaust.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 13.3.2
    Example 13.3
    90 min
    30 min 60 min cure,
    Uncured cure cure coated
    (n = 5) (n = 5) (n = 5) (n = 5)
    Tablet Weight 154 154    152    160   
    Dimensions (mg)
    Thickness 4.56 4.85 4.79 4.77
    (mm)
    Diameter 7.13 7.01 6.96 6.98
    (mm)
    Breaking 83 1961    1961    1961   
    strength
    (N)
    n = 6 n = 6 n = 6
    Dissolution 1 hr 22 (5.8) 26 (9.2) 23 (5.7)
    (% 2 hr 37 (6.4) 42 (8.6) 39 (4.7)
    Released) 4 hr 61 (6.3) 67 (6.3) 64 (3.7)
    SGF 8 hr 90 (4.5) 93 (3.3) 92 (2.7)
    12 hr  99 (3.1) 101 (2.2) 101 (1.8) 
    1maximum force of the hardness tester, the tablets did not break when subjected to the maximum force of 196 N.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 13.4.1
    Temperature profile of the curing process for Ex. 13.4:
    Total Curing Set inlet Actual inlet Probe Exhaust
    Time time temperature temperature temperature temperature
    (min.) (min.)1 ( C.) ( C.)2 ( C.)3 ( C.)4 Comments
    0 25 25 24.6 23.4
    5 90 85 46.8 51
    10 90 89.9 56.6 63.8
    15 90 89.8 68.5 68.7
    16 0 90 90.1 70 69.5 Curing starts
    26 10 90 90 73.6 72.9
    36 20 86 86 75.4 76.8
    46 30 84 84 75.4 77.2 30 min sample
    56 40 83 82.9 75.1 76.8
    66 50 82 81.4 74.8 76.6
    76 60 82 81.7 74.7 76.3 60 min sample
    86 70 82 82.1 75 76.3
    96 80 82 82.1 75.1 76.3
    106 90 82 82.1 75.1 76.4 End of curing,
    90 min sample
    112 21 33.8 55.9 50
    126 21 22.1 31.6 34.6
    1determined according to method 4,
    2temperature measured at the inlet;
    3temperature measured using the temperature probe (wire thermocouple),
    4temperature measured at the exhaust.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 13.4.2
    Example 13.4
    90 min
    30 min 60 min cure,
    Uncured cure cure coated
    (n = 5) (n = 5) (n = 5) (n = 5)
    Tablet Weight 150 151    150    159   
    Dimensions (mg)
    Thickness 4.43 4.73 4.67 4.68
    (mm)
    Diameter 7.13 7.00 6.97 7.00
    (mm)
    Breaking 65 1961    1961    1961   
    strength
    (N)
    n = 6 n = 6
    Dissolution 1 hr 29 (3.2) 25 (7.9) 24 (5.5)
    (% 2 hr 47 (3.1) 42 (6.7) 41 (5.2)
    Released) 4 hr 71 (2.4) 67 (5.2) 67 (6.2)
    SGF 8 hr 92 (2.5) 92 (4.3) 94 (3.2)
    12 hr  99 (2.1) 100 (2.8)  101 (2.2) 
    1maximum force of the hardness tester, the tablets did not break when subjected to the maximum force of 196 N.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 13.5.1
    Temperature profile of the curing process for Ex. 13.5:
    Total Curing Set inlet Actual inlet Probe Exhaust
    Time time temperature temperature temperature temperature
    (min.) (min.)1 ( C.) ( C.)2 ( C.)3 ( C.)4 Comments
    0 80 69.2 39.8 35.6
    10 90 80.2 64.9 65.6
    20 0 90 90.2 70.9 71 Curing starts
    25 5 90 89.9 71.7 72.4
    30 10 90 90.1 72.8 73.4
    35 15 85 87.1 74.1 76.1
    50 30 85 85 75.2 77.5 30 min sample
    60 40 83 83.2 74.7 76.8
    80 60 83 83.1 75.1 76.5 60 min sample
    90 70 83 83 75.3 76.6
    100 80 80 79.1 74.4 76
    110 90 80 80.1 73.6 74.7 End of curing,
    90 min sample
    115 21 39.6 55.6 59.4
    120 21 24.5 41.5 45.2
    125 21 23 37.7 40.7
    1determined according to method 4,
    2temperature measured at the inlet;
    3temperature measured using the temperature probe (wire thermocouple),
    4temperature measured at the exhaust.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 13.5.2
    Example 13.5
    90 min
    30 min 60 min 90 min cure,
    Uncured cure cure cure coated
    (n = 5) (n = 5) (n = 5) (n = 5) (n = 5)
    Tablet Weight (mg) 156 157    154    153    158   
    Dimensions Thickness (mm) 4.45 4.66 4.57 4.52 4.51
    Diameter (mm) 7.12 7.06 7.04 7.03 7.08
    Breaking 90 4381    4381    4381    4381   
    strength (N)
    Relaxed diameter 4.57 4.68 4.69 4.67
    (mm) post
    breaking strength
    test (NLT 15 min
    relax period)
    n = 6 n = 6
    Dissolution 1 hr 28 (5.0) 29 (5.9) 26 (1.4)
    (% 2 hr 45 (5.2) 45 (5.6) 42 (1.4)
    Released) 4 hr 69 (4.8) 70 (4.4) 68 (2.0)
    SGF 8 hr 93 (4.2) 94 (4.0) 94 (4.0)
    12 hr  98 (3.9) 102 (5.2)  99 (5.1)
    1maximum force of the hardness tester, the tablets did not break when subjected to the maximum force of 438 N.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 13.6
    Density (g/cm3)1 Density
    30 min 60 min 90 min change after
    Uncured cure cure cure curing (%)2
    Example 13.1 1.172 1.131 1.134 1.137 −2.986
    Example 13.2 1.174 1.137 1.137 1.140 −2.896
    Example 13.3 1.179 1.151 1.152 1.152 −2.290
    Example 13.4 1.182 1.167 1.168 1.172 −0.846
    Example 13.5 1.222 1.183 1.183 1.187 −2.864
    1The density value is a mean value of 3 tablets measured;
    2The density change after curing corresponds to the observed density change in % of the tablets cured for 90 min in comparison to the uncured tablets.
  • Example 14
  • [0603]
    In Example 14, five different 156 mg tablets (Examples 14.1 to 14.5) including 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 mg of oxycodone HCl were prepared using high molecular weight polyethylene oxide, in a larger batch size compared to Example 13.
  • Compositions:
  • [0604]
  • [0000]
    Exam- Exam- Exam- Exam-
    ple ple ple ple Example
    14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5
    mg/unit mg/unit mg/unit mg/unit mg/unit
    Ingredient
    Oxycodone HCl 10 15 20 30 40
    Polyethylene oxide 138.5 133.5 128.5 118.5 108.5
    (MW: approximately
    4,000,000;
    Polyox  WSR-301)
    Magnesium Stearate 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
    Total Core Tablet 150 150 150 150 150
    Weight (mg)
    Total Batch size 100 kg 100 kg 100 kg 100 kg 100 kg
    Coating
    Opadry film coating 6 6 6 6 6
    Total Tablet Weight 156 156 156 156 156
    (mg)
    Coating Batch Size 97.480 98.808 97.864 99.511 98.788
    (kg)

    The processing steps to manufacture tablets were as follows:
    • 1. The magnesium stearate was passed through a Sweco Sifter equipped with a 20 mesh screen, into a separate suitable container.
    • 2. A Gemco V blender (with I bar)10 cu. ft. was charged in the following order:
      • Approximately ½ of the polyethylene oxide WSR 301
      • Oxycodone hydrochloride
      • Remaining polyethylene oxide WSR 301
    • 3. Step 2 materials were blended for 10 minutes with the I bar on.
    • 4. Magnesium stearate was charged into the Gemco V blender.
    • 5. Step 4 materials were blended for 3 minutes with the I bar off.
    • 6. Step 5 blend was charged into clean, tared, stainless steel containers.
    • 7. Step 6 blend was compressed to target weight on a 40 station tablet press at 135,000 tph using 9/32 inch standard round, concave (embossed) tooling.
    • 8. Step 7 tablets were loaded into a 48 inch Accela-Coat coating pan at a load of 97.480 kg (Example 14.1), 98.808 kg (Example 14.2), 97.864 kg (Example 14.3), 99.511 kg (Example 14.4) and 98.788 kg (Example 14.5).
    • 9. The pan speed was set to 7 rpm and the tablet bed was heated by setting the exhaust air temperature to achieve an inlet air temperature of 75 C. The tablets were cured at the target inlet temperature for 1 hour (Examples 14.1 to 14.5). The starting point used for the determination of the curing time according to method 1 was the point when the inlet temperature achieved the target temperature of 75 C. The temperature profile of the curing processes of Examples 14.1 to 14.5 is presented in Tables 14.1.1 to 14.5.1 and in FIGS. 15 to 19.
    • 10. The pan speed was continued at 7 rpm for Examples 14.2, 14.4 and 14.5. The pan speed was increased up to 10 rpm for Example 14.1 and up to 8 rpm for Example 14.3. For Examples 14.2 to 14.5, 20 g of magnesium stearate was added as an anti-tacking agent. The tablet bed was cooled by slowly lowering the exhaust temperature setting (Example 14.1) or by immediately setting the exhaust temperature setting to 25 C. (Example 14.2) or 30 C. (Examples 14.3 to 14.5). until a specific exhaust temperature of 30 to 34 C. was reached.
    • 11. The tablet bed was warmed using an exhaust air temperature to target a 55 C. inlet temperature. The film coating was started once the exhaust temperature approached 39 C. and continued until the target weight gain of 4% was achieved.
    • 12. After coating was completed, the pan speed was set to 1.5 rpm and the exhaust temperature was set to 27 C., the airflow was maintained at the current setting and the system cooled to an exhaust temperature of 27-30 C.
    • 13. The tablets were discharged.
  • [0621]
    In vitro testing including breaking strength tests and stability tests was performed as follows:
  • [0622]
    Tablets cured for 1 hour and coated were tested in vitro using USP Apparatus 1 (basket) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37 C. Samples were analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on Waters Atlantis dC18 3.0×150 mm, 3 μm column, using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of acetonitrile and non basic potassium phosphate buffer (pH 3.0) at 230 nm UV detection. Sample time points include 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 12.0 hours. Tablet dimensions and dissolution results corresponding to the respective curing time and temperature are presented in Tables 14.1.2 to 14.5.2.
  • [0623]
    Uncured tablets were subjected to a breaking strength test by applying a force of a maximum of 196 Newton using a Schleuniger 2E/106 Apparatus to evaluate tablet resistance to breaking.
  • [0624]
    Cured, coated tablets were subjected to a stability test by storing them in 100 count bottles at different storage conditions (25 C./60% relative humidity or 40 C./75% relative humidity) for a certain period of time and subsequently testing the tablets in vitro as described above. Sample time points regarding storage include initial sample (i.e. prior to storage), one month, two months, three months and six months of storage, sample time points regarding dissolution test include 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 12.0 hours.
  • [0625]
    Cured, coated tablets were subjected to a further stability test by storing them in 100 count bottles at different storage conditions (25 C./60% relative humidity or 40 C./75% relative humidity) for a certain period of time and subsequently subjecting the tablets to the assay test to determine the content of oxycodone HCl in the tablet samples. Sample time points regarding storage include initial sample (i.e. prior to storage), one month, two months, three months and six months of storage. In the assay test, oxycodone hydrochloride was extracted from two sets of ten tablets each with 900 mL of a 1:2 mixture of acetonitrile and simulated gastric fluid without enzyme (SGF) under constant magnetic stirring in a 1000-mL volumetric flask until all tablets were completely dispersed or for overnight. The sample solutions were diluted and analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on Waters Atlantis dC18 3.0×250 mm, 5 μm column maintained at 60 C. using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and potassium phosphate monobasic buffer at pH 3.0 with UV detection at 280 nm.
  • [0626]
    Cured, coated tablets were subjected to a further stability test by storing them in 100 count bottles at different storage conditions (25 C./60% relative humidity or 40 C./75% relative humidity) for a certain period of time and subsequently subjecting the tablets to the oxycodone-N-oxide (ONO) test to determine the content of the degradation product oxycodone-N-oxide and unknown degradation products in percent by weight, relative to the oxycodone HCl label claim. Sample time points regarding storage include initial sample (i.e. prior to storage), one month, two months, three months and six months of storage. In the ONO test, oxycodone hydrochloride and its degradation products were extracted from a set of ten tablets with 900 mL of a 1:2 mixture of acetonitrile and simulated gastric fluid without enzyme (SGF) under constant magnetic stirring in a 1000-mL volumetric flask until all tablets were completely dispersed or for overnight. The sample solutions were diluted and analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on Waters Atlantis dC18 3.0×250 mm, 5 μm column maintained at 60 C. using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and potassium phosphate monobasic buffer at pH 3.0 with UV detection at 206 nm.
  • [0627]
    The density of uncured tablets, cured tablets and cured/coated tablets was determined as described for Example 13.
  • [0628]
    The results are presented in the following Tables.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 14.1.1
    Temperature profile of the curing process for Ex. 14.1
    Set Actual
    Total Curing Inlet exhaust exhaust Pan
    time time temp. temp. temp. speed
    (min.) (min.)1 ( C.)2 ( C.) ( C.)3 (rpm) Comments
    0 7 Load pan, start
    warming
    20 65 57 56 7
    21 65.0 7
    28 70.0 7
    30 72.0 64 63 7
    36 0 75.0 65 65 7 Curing starts
    0 min sample
    43 7 73.2 7
    46 10 73 67 67
    51 15 72.2 7 15 min sample
    56 20 71.8 67 67 8
    66 30 75.0 68 68 8 30 min sample
    76 40 73.0 68 68 8
    81 45 74.8 8 45 min sample
    86 50 74.3 69 69 8
    92 56 72.3 8
    96 60 71.0 69 69 8 End of curing,
    60 min sample,
    Mg stearate
    not used,
    start cool
    down, tablet flow
    was sticky
    101 62.0 8 Tablet flow
    starting to get
    chunky
    104 59.2 9 Flow very chunky
    (tablet bed
    sheeting)
    106 57 62 62 10
    109 54.9 9 Tablet flow still
    slightly chunky,
    but better
    110 53.2 8 Back to normal
    tablet flow
    116 48.0 58 58 8
    126 29.0 30 46 7
    132 24.0 30 33 7
    1determined according to method 1,
    2temperature measured at the inlet,
    3temperature measured at the exhaust.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 14.1.2
    Example 14.1
    60 min cure,
    60 min cure coated
    Uncured (n = 5) (n = 5)
    Tablet Weight (mg)  150 (n = 120) 150    158   
    Dimensions Thickness 4.42 (n = 5) 4.71 4.75
    (mm)
    Diameter 7.14 (n = 5) 7.05 7.07
    (mm)
    Breaking   68 (n = 100) 1961    1961   
    strength (N)
    n = 6
    Dissolution 1 hr 25   
    (% 2 hr 42   
    Released) 4 hr 67   
    SGF 8 hr 94   
    12 hr  101   
    1maximum force of the hardness tester, the tablets did not break when subjected to the maximum force of 196 N.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 14.1.3
    Stability tests Example 14.1, storage at 25 C./60% RH
    Storage time
    Initial 1 month 2 months 3 months 6 months
    Dissolution 1 hr 25 24 24 23 23
    (% Released) 2 hr 42 40 38 38 39
    (n = 6 4 hr 67 64 61 61 64
    SGF 8 hr 94 90 87 89 90
    12 hr  101 99 94 100 97
    Assay test Assay 1 9.8 9.8 9.8 9.8 9.7
    (mg oxycodone Assay 2 9.8 9.9 9.8 9.9 9.8
    HCl) Average 9.8 9.8 9.8 9.9 9.8
    Degradation oxycodone N-oxide ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1
    products test (%)1
    Each individual ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1
    unknown (%)1
    Total degradation ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1
    products (%)1
    1relative to the label claim of oxycodone HCl.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 14.1.4
    Stability tests Example 14.1, storage at 40 C./75% RH
    Storage time
    Initial 1 month 2 months 3 months 6 months
    Dissolution  1 hr 25 25 25 24 23
    (% Released)  2 hr 42 41 38 39
    (n = 6)  4 hr 67 66 63 62 64
    SGF  8 hr 94 89 88 90
    12 hr 101 100 96 98 96
    Assay test Assay 1 9.8 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.8
    (mg oxycodone Assay 2 9.8 10.0 9.7 9.8 9.8
    HCl) Average 9.8 9.9 9.7 9.7 9.8
    Degradation oxycodone N-oxide ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1
    products test (%)1
    Each individual ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1
    unknown (%)1
    Total degradation ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1
    products (%)1
    1relative to the label claim of oxycodone HCl.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 14.2.1
    Temperature profile of the curing process for Ex. 14.2
    Set Actual
    Total Curing Inlet exhaust exhaust Pan
    time time temp. temp. temp. speed
    (min.) (min.)1 ( C.)2 ( C.) ( C.)3 (rpm) Comments
    0 18 50 20 7 Load pan, start warming
    1 41.0 7
    5 50.0 62.0
    8 67.7 51.0 50.5 7 Slowly adjusting exhaust set
    10 71 56 55
    14 0 75.0 61.7 61.9 7 curing starts, 0 min sample
    19 5 77.2 61.7 64.8 7
    21 7 77.8 7 High inlet, then dropped to 71 C.
    24 10 68.9 65.3 65.3 7
    29 15 70.6 66.1 65.5 7 15 min sample
    33 19 72.6 7
    34 20 73.6 67.0 66.3 7
    36 22 75.0 7
    39 25 75.9 67.0 67.3 7
    44 30 73.3 67.0 67.4 7 30 min sample
    49 35 70.1 67.2 67.0 7
    54 40 71.7 67.5 67.3 7 Couple of tablets sticking at
    pan support arms, no
    permanent stick
    59 45 74.3 68.0 67.9 7 45 min sample
    64 50 75 68 68 7
    66 52 73.6 68.0 68.2 7
    69 55 72.4 68.0 68.1 7
    74 60 73.0 68 68 7 End of curing, 60 min
    sample, add 20 g Mg stearate,
    tablet flow was slightly sticky
    (based on visual cascade
    flow), flow instantly improved
    after adding Mg stearate
    75 73 25 68 7 Normal tablet flow observed
    78 44.7 25 62.3 7 during cool down
    81 36.8 25 57.4 7
    84 31.8 25 54.6 7
    85 30 25 53 7
    94 23 25 33 7
    1determined according to method 1,
    2temperature measured at the inlet,
    3temperature measured at the exhaust.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 14.2.2
    Example 14.2
    60 min cure,
    60 min cure coated
    Uncured (n = 5) (n = 5)
    Tablet Weight (mg)  150 (n = 120) 149    156   
    Dimensions Thickness 4.38 (n = 5) 4.68 4.70
    (mm)
    Diameter 7.13 (n = 5) 7.07 7.09
    (mm)
    Breaking   70 (n = 100) 1961    1961   
    strength (N)
    n = 6
    Dissolution 1 hr 23   
    (% 2 hr 39   
    Released) 4 hr 64   
    SGF 8 hr 93   
    12 hr  100   
    1maximum force of the hardness tester, the tablets did not break when subjected to the maximum force of 196 N.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 14.2.3
    Stability tests Example 14.2, storage at 25 C./60% RH
    Storage time
    Initial 1 month 2 months 3 months 6 months
    Dissolution  1 hr 23 24 26 22 24
    (% Released)  2 hr 39 40 41 37 40
    (n = 6)  4 hr 64 65 65 61 65
    SGF  8 hr 93 91 90 90 91
    12 hr 100 100 97 99 99
    Assay test Assay 1 14.6 14.9 14.6 14.7 14.8
    (mg oxycodone Assay 2 14.8 14.9 14.7 14.8 14.9
    HCl) Average 14.7 14.9 14.7 14.7 14.8
    Degradation oxycodone N-oxide ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1
    products test (%)1
    Each individual ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1
    unknown (%)1
    Total degradation ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1
    products (%)1
    1relative to the label claim of oxycodone HCl.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 14.2.4
    Stability tests Example 14.2, storage at 40 C./75% RH
    Storage time
    Initial 1 month 2 months 3 months 6 months
    Dissolution  1 hr 23 25 26 22 24
    (% Released)  2 hr 39 41 42 36 40
    (n = 6)  4 hr 64 66 66 58 65
    SGF  8 hr 93 94 92 87 91
    12 hr 100 102 97 97 98
    Assay test Assay 1 14.6 14.8 14.7 14.6 14.9
    (mg oxycodone Assay 2 14.8 14.8 14.7 14.5 14.7
    HCl) Average 14.7 14.8 14.7 14.5 14.8
    Degradation oxycodone N-oxide ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1
    products test (%)1
    Each individual ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1
    unknown (%)1
    Total degradation ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1
    products (%)1
    1relative to the label claim of oxycodone HCl.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 14.3.1
    Temperature profile of the curing process for Ex. 14.3
    Set Actual
    Total Curing Inlet exhaust exhaust Pan
    time time temp. temp. temp. speed
    (min.) (min.)1 ( C.)2 ( C.) ( C.)3 (rpm) Comments
    0 17.1 50 18 7 Load pan, start warming
    5 61.0 50 42.5 7
    10 70.2 56 55.8 7
    15 0 75.0 61.6 61.9 7 Curing starts, 0 min sample
    20 5 78.5 62.8 65.4 7
    22 7 79.0 62.8 66.3 7 Inlet high
    25 10 69.7 65.6 65.6 7
    30 15 68.4 66.0 65.3 7 15 min sample
    35 20 72.4 66.7 66.1 7
    40 25 75.6 67.5 67.3 7
    45 30 76.9 68.0 67.9 7 30 min sample
    55 40 73.0 68.4 68.2 7
    60 45 73.9 68.6 68.4 7 45 min sample
    65 50 75 68.9 68.8 7
    68 53 7 Couple of tablets (1-4)
    sticking at pan support arms,
    good tablet flow
    70 55 76.2 69.6 69.6 8
    75 60 77.0 70.5 70.8 8 End of curing, 60 min
    sample, add 20 g Mg stearate,
    tablet flow instantly improved
    76 76 30 71 8 Normal tablet flow observed
    79 43.9 30 60.6 8 during cool down
    85 31.1 30 54.1 8 No sticking
    86 30 30 53 8
    96 23 30 33 8
    1determined according to method 1,
    2temperature measured at the inlet,
    3temperature measured at the exhaust.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 14.3.2
    Example 14.3
    60 min cure,
    60 min cure coated
    Uncured (n = 5) (n = 5)
    Tablet Weight (mg)  150 (n = 120) 150  156 
    Dimensions Thickness 4.38 (n = 5)    4.69    4.67
    (mm)
    Diameter 7.14 (n = 5)    7.08    7.10
    (mm)
    Breaking   64 (n = 110) 1961  1961 
    strength (N)
    n = 6
    Dissolution 1 hr 24
    (% 2 hr 41
    Released) 4 hr 66
    SGF 8 hr 92
    12 hr  98
    1maximum force of the hardness tester, the tablets did not break when subjected to the maximum force of 196 N.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 14.3.3
    Stability tests Example 14.3, storage at 25 C./60% RH
    Storage time
    Initial 1 month 2 months 3 months 6 months
    Dissolution  1 hr 24 25 22 24 21
    (% Released)  2 hr 41 42 38 40 38
    (n = 6)  4 hr 66 69 61 66 63
    SGF  8 hr 92 96 89 91 88
    12 hr 98 102 97 99 96
    Assay test Assay 1 19.6 19.4 19.5 19.4 19.8
    (mg oxycodone Assay 2 19.4 19.3 19.4 19.4 19.4
    HCl) Average 19.5 19.4 19.4 19.4 19.6
    Degradation oxycodone N-oxide ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1
    products test (%)1
    Each individual ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1
    unknown (%)1
    Total degradation ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1
    products (%)1
    1relative to the label claim of oxycodone HCl.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 14.3.4
    Stability tests Example 14.3, storage at 40 C./75% RH
    Storage time
    Initial 1 month 2 months 3 months 6 months
    Dissolution  1 hr 24 27 24 23 22
    (% Released)  2 hr 41 44 40 39 40
    (n = 6)  4 hr 66 70 63 63 65
    SGF  8 hr 92 94 90 89 90
    12 hr 98 102 98 98 98
    Assay test Assay 1 19.6 19.3 19.6 19.3 19.7
    (mg oxycodone Assay 2 19.4 19.3 19.7 19.4 19.4
    HCl) Average 19.5 19.3 19.6 19.4 19.6
    Degradation oxycodone N-oxide ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1
    products test (%)1
    Each individual ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1
    unknown (%)1
    Total degradation ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1
    products (%)1
    1relative to the label claim of oxycodone HCl.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 14.4.1
    Temperature profile of the curing process for Ex. 14.4
    Set Actual
    Total Curing Inlet Bed exhaust exhaust
    time time temp. temp. temp. temp.
    (min.) (min.)1 ( C.)2 ( C.)3 ( C.) ( C.)4 Comments5
    0 Load pan, start warming
    3 63.0 46.5 50.0 41.2
    5 66.7 49.9 50.0 48.0
    10 0 75.0 60.5 60.0 59.0 curing starts, 0 min sample
    14 4 78.4 65.2 61.5 63.6
    15 5 79.1 66.0 61.5 64.5
    20 10 67.6 66.2 63.0 64.7
    24 15 69.2 66.7 65.7 64.9 15 min sample
    28 19 73.0 67.8 66.4 65.8
    29 20 73.5 68.0 67.0 66.0
    32 23 75.6 69.0 67.0 66.7
    34 25 75.9 69.4 67.0 67.0
    39 30 76.5 70.2 67.7 67.7 30 min sample
    44 35 76.8 70.8 68.2 68.2
    47 38 76.7 71.0 68.8 68.4 Couple of tablets sticking at pan
    support arms, no permanent
    sticking
    49 40 77.4 71.0 69.3 68.7
    52 43 78.7 71.5 69.5 69.2
    54 45 79.1 72.1 70.0 69.5 45 min sample
    58 49 73.3
    59 50 81.0 73.8 70.1 70.8
    65 56 73.0 74.1 71.7 71.5
    69 60 74.0 74.5 71.7 71.3 End of curing, 60 min sample,
    add 20 g Mg stearate, start cool
    down, tablet flow slightly sticky
    (based on visual cascade flow),
    still couple of tablets sticking at
    support arms, flow/cascade
    instantly improved after adding
    Mg stearate
    72 48.9 65.3 30.0 65.3 Normal tablet flow observed
    75 39.7 58.6 30.0 56.8 during cool down
    79 33.2 56.4 30.0 54.6
    84 27.7 50.0 30.0 48.4
    1determined according to method 1,
    2temperature measured at the inlet,
    3tablet bed temperature, i.e. temperature of extended release matrix formulations, measured with an IR gun,
    4temperature measured at the exhaust,
    5The pan speed was 7 rpm throughout the curing process.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 14.4.2
    Example 14.4
    60 min 60 min cure,
    cure coated
    Uncured (n = 5) (n = 5)
    Tablet Weight (mg) 150 149 157 
    Dimensions (n = 120)
    Thickness (mm) 4.34 (n = 5)  4.60    4.63
    Diameter (mm) 7.14 (n = 5)  7.09    7.14
    Breaking  61 1961 1961 
    strength (N) (n = 100)
    n = 6
    Dissolution 1 hr 22
    (% 2 hr 39
    Released) 4 hr 66
    SGF 8 hr 94
    12 hr  100 
    1maximum force of the hardness tester, the tablets did not break when subjected to the maximum force of 196 N.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 14.4.3
    Stability tests Example 14.4, storage at 25 C./60% RH
    Storage time
    Initial 1 month 2 months 3 months 6 months
    Dissolution  1 hr 22 23 24 24 23
    (% Released)  2 hr 39 39 39 41 40
    (n = 6)  4 hr 66 64 63 68 65
    SGF  8 hr 94 91 88 93 91
    12 hr 100 98 96 99 98
    Assay test Assay 1 28.8 28.8 28.4 28.8 29.2
    (mg oxycodone Assay 2 29.1 29.0 28.8 28.8 29.2
    HCl) Average 29.0 28.9 28.6 28.8 29.2
    Degradation oxycodone N-oxide ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1
    products test (%)1
    Each individual ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1
    unknown (%)1
    Total degradation ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1
    products (%)1
    1relative to the label claim of oxycodone HCl.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 14.4.4
    Stability tests Example 14.4, storage at 40 C./75% RH
    Storage time
    Initial 1 month 2 months 3 months 6 months
    Dissolution  1 hr 22 26 24 24 24
    (% Released)  2 hr 39 44 41 41 41
    (n = 6)  4 hr 66 70 64 67 67
    SGF  8 hr 94 93 88 92 93
    12 hr 100 99 96 98 98
    Assay test Assay 1 28.8 29.3 28.2 29.0 28.4
    (mg oxycodone Assay 2 29.1 29.3 28.1 28.9 28.6
    HCl) Average 29.0 29.3 28.1 28.9 28.5
    Degradation oxycodone N-oxide ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1
    products test (%)1
    Each individual ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1
    unknown (%)1
    Total degradation ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1
    products (%)1
    1relative to the label claim of oxycodone HCl.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 14.5.1
    Temperature profile of the curing process for Ex. 14.5
    Set Actual
    Total Curing Inlet Bed exhaust exhaust
    time time temp. temp. temp. temp.
    (min.) (min.)1 ( C.)2 ( C.)3 ( C.) ( C.)4 Comments5
     0 16.6 30 60.0 19.7 Load pan, start warming
     1 32 60.0
     4 56.8 39.8 60.0 36.7
     5 60.1 43.9 60.0 40.4
     8 66.8 52.5 60.0 49.4
    10 69.1 56.9 60.0 53.8
    13 71.7 61.3 60.0 58.8
    15 73.3 63.5 61.0 60.8
    17 0 75.0 65.3 63.0 62.5 Curing starts, 0 min sample
    21 4 77.7 67.3 66.0 65.0
    23 6 78.8 68.1 67.0 65.9
    25 8 79.9 69.3 67.0 66.7
    27 10 80.9 69.5 67.0 67.3
    30 13 82.4 70.1 67.0 68.2
    32 15 83.1 70.8 70.0 68.7 15 min sample
    37 20 80.9 72.4 70.4 69.4
    38 21 80.9 71.8 71.0 69.5
    42 25 82.5 73.1 72.0 70.4 Good tablet flow and cascade
    45 28 84.2 76.6 71.0 72.2
    47 30 82.7 77.6 72.2 74.1 30 min sample
    49 32 72.9 74.7 72.2 73.2
    52 35 71.2 73.8 72.2 71.4 Tablet flow slightly sticky, 1-2
    tablets sticking at support arms
    56 39 75.4 74.7 72.2 71.5
    57 40 75.9 74.7 72.2 71.9
    60 43 76.9 75.5 72.2 72.8
    62 45 75.4 75.3 72.2 72.9 45 min sample
    66 49 73.4 74.5 72.2 71.8 Tablet flow slightly sticky, 1-2
    tablets sticking at support arms
    (not permanent sticking)
    69 52 75.0 75.1 72.2 71.9
    72 55 75.8 75.4 72.2 72.4
    74 57 74.8 74.8 72.2 72.5
    77 60 73.9 74.9 72.2 72.2 End of curing, 60 min sample,
    add 20 g Mg stearate, instantly
    improved flow/cascade start cool
    down, no sticking at pan support
    arms,
    80 46.8 64.9 30.0 64.7 Cooling
    30.0 2 tablets sticking at support arms
    (not permanent sticking)
    82 40.3 58.6 30.0 57.4 Tablets still appear bouncy, no
    sticking observed
    84 35.8 57.4 30.0 55.6 Normal tablet flow observed
    86 32.5 55.9 30.0 54.2 during cool down period.
    87 30.3 54.1 30.0 52.8 Continue cooling to exhaust
    89 28.8 51.8 30.0 51.3 temperature of 30-34 C. for
    91 26.9 47.2 30.0 47.9 coating start-up
    97 ~ 29 30.0 Top of bed 30.3 C., bottom of
    bed 28.5 C.
    1determined according to method 1,
    2temperature measured at the inlet,
    3tablet bed temperature, i.e. temperature of extended release matrix formulations, measured with an IR gun,
    4temperature measured at the exhaust,
    5The pan speed was 7 rpm throughout the curing process.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 14.5.2
    Example 14.5
    60 min 60 min cure,
    cure coated
    Uncured (n = 5) (n = 5)
    Tablet Weight (mg) 150 149 155 
    Dimensions (n = 120)
    Thickness (mm) 4.30 (n = 5)  4.49    4.52
    Diameter (mm) 7.15 (n = 5)  7.10    7.15
    Breaking  55 1961 1961 
    strength (N) (n = 110)
    n = 6
    Dissolution 1 hr 24
    (% 2 hr 41
    Released) 4 hr 68
    SGF 8 hr 93
    12 hr  98
    1maximum force of the hardness tester, the tablets did not break when subjected to the maximum force of 196 N.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 14.5.3
    Stability tests Example 14.5, storage at 25 C./60% RH
    Storage time
    Initial 1 month 2 months 3 months 6 months
    Dissolution  1 hr 24 25 27 23 25
    (% Released)  2 hr 41 43 44 40 43
    (n = 6)  4 hr 68 69 69 66 69
    SGF  8 hr 93 94 93 89 92
    12 hr 98 98 97 96 96
    Assay test Assay 1 37.8 38.4 36.9 37.6 39.2
    (mg oxycodone Assay 2 37.9 37.6 36.5 38.1 39.2
    HCl) Average 37.8 38.0 36.7 37.9 39.2
    Degradation oxycodone N-oxide ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1
    products test (%)1
    Each individual ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1
    unknown (%)1
    Total degradation ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1
    products (%)1
    1relative to the label claim of oxycodone HCl.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 14.5.4
    Stability tests Example 14.5, storage at 40 C./75% RH
    Storage time
    Initial 1 month 2 months 3 months 6 months
    Dissolution 1 hr 24 26 27 25 25
    (% Released) 2 hr 41 45 42 43
    (n = 6) 4 hr 68 71 72 68 69
    SGF 8 hr 93 95 93 92
    12 hr 98 97 98 99 95
    Assay test Assay 1 37.8 38.3 37.3 37.6 37.9
    (mg oxycodone Assay 2 37.9 38.6 36.9 37.6 38.1
    HCl) Average 37.8 38.5 37.1 37.6 38.0
    Degradation oxycodone N-oxide ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1
    products test (%)1
    Each individual ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1
    unknown (%)1
    Total degradation ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1 ≦0.1
    products (%)1
    1relative to the label claim of oxycodone HCl.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 14.6
    Density (g/cm3) Density Density
    Cured change change after
    and after curing and
    Uncured Cured Coated curing (%) coating (%)
    Example 14.1 1.186 1.145 1.138 −3.457 −4.047
    Example 14.2 1.184 1.152 1.129 −2.703 −4.645
    Example 14.3 1.183 1.151 1.144 −2.705 −3.297
    Example 14.4 1.206 1.162 1.130 −3.648 −6.302
    Example 14.5 1.208 1.174 1.172 −2.815 −2.980
  • Example 15
  • [0629]
    In Example 15, two different Oxycodone HCl tablet formulations were prepared using high molecular weight polyethylene oxide. One formulation at 234 mg tablet weight (Example 15.1) with 60 mg of Oxycodone HCl and one formulation at 260 mg tablet weight (Example 15.2) with 80 mg of Oxycodone HCl.
  • Compositions:
  • [0630]
  • [0000]
    Example 15.1 Example 15.2
    mg/unit mg/unit
    Ingredient
    Oxycodone HCl 60 80
    Polyethylene oxide 162.75 167.5
    (MW: approximately 4,000,000;
    Polyox  WSR-301)
    Magnesium Stearate 2.25 2.50
    Total Core Tablet Weight (mg) 225 250
    Total Batch size 10 kg 10 kg
    Coating
    Opadry film coating 9 10
    Total Tablet Weight (mg) 234 260
    Coating Batch Size (kg) 8.367 8.205

    The processing steps to manufacture tablets were as follows:
    • 1. A Patterson Kelly V blender (with I bar)16 quart was charged in the following order:
      • Approximately ½ of the polyethylene oxide WSR 301
      • Oxycodone hydrochloride (screened through a 20-mesh screen)
      • Remaining polyethylene oxide WSR 301
    • 2. Step 1 materials were blended for 5 minutes with the I bar on.
    • 3. Magnesium stearate was charged into the V blender (screened through a 20-mesh screen).
    • 4. Step 3 materials were blended for 1 minute with the I bar off.
    • 5. Step 4 blend was charged into a plastic bag (note: two 5 kg blends were prepared to provide 10 kgs of tablet blend for compression).
    • 6. Step 5 blend was compressed to target weight on an 8 station tablet press at 35,000 tph speed using ⅜ inch standard round, concave (embossed) tooling. A sample of tablet cores was taken.
    • 7. Step 6 tablets were loaded into a 24 inch Compu-Lab coating pan at a pan load of 8.367 kg (Example 15.1) and 8.205 kg (Example 15.2).
    • 8. A temperature probe (wire thermocouple) was placed into the pan directly above the tablet bed so that the probe tip was near the cascading bed of tablets.
    • 9. The pan speed was set to 10 rpm and the tablet bed was heated by setting the inlet temperature to achieve an exhaust target temperature of 72 C. The curing starting point (as described by method 2) was initiated once the exhaust temperature achieved 72 C. The inlet temperature was adjusted as necessary to maintain the target exhaust temperature. The tablets were cured for 15 minutes. The pan speed was maintained at 10 rpm. The temperature profile of the curing processes for Examples 15.1 and 15.2 is presented in Tables 15.1.1 and 15.2.1.
    • 10. The pan speed was continued at 10 rpm. The inlet temperature was set to 22 C. and the tablet bed was cooled until an exhaust temperature of 30.0 C. was achieved. A sample of cured tablets was taken at the end of cooling.
    • 11. The tablet bed was warmed using an inlet setting of 53 C. The filmcoating was started once the exhaust temperature achieved approximately 41 C. and continued until the target weight gain of 4% was achieved. The pan speed was increased up to 20 rpm during filmcoating.
    • 12. After filmcoating was completed, the pan speed was reduced and the inlet temperature was set to 22 C., the airflow was maintained at the current setting and the system cooled to an exhaust temperature of <30 C. A sample of cured/coated tablets was taken.
    • 13. The tablets were discharged.
  • [0647]
    In vitro testing including breaking strength tests was performed as follows:
  • [0648]
    Core tablets (uncured), 15 minute cured tablets and cured/coated tablets were tested in vitro using USP Apparatus 1 (basket with a retaining spring placed at the top of the basket to reduce the propensity of the tablet to stick to the base of the shaft) at 100 rpm in 900 ml simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (SGF) at 37.0 C. Samples were analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on Waters Atlantis dC18 3.0×250 mm, 5 μm column, using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of acetonitrile and potassium phosphate monobasic buffer (pH 3.0) at 230 nm UV detection. Sample time points include 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 12.0 and 16.0 hours.
  • [0649]
    Core tablets (uncured), 15 minute cured tablets and cured/coated tablets were subjected to a breaking strength test by applying a force of a maximum of 196 Newton using a Schleuniger 2E/106 apparatus to evaluate tablet resistance to breaking.
  • [0650]
    Tablet dimensions and dissolution results are presented in Tables 15.1.2 to 15.2.2.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 15.1.1
    Temperature profile of the curing process for Ex. 15.1
    Total Curing Temperature
    Time time Set inlet Actual Probe Exhaust